Other Endoscopic Methods

Expandable metal stents have largely replaced older forms of endoscopic palliation of obstructive rectal cancer. Laser ablation is still a useful therapy for some patients, especially those with rectal bleeding. Quality of life can also be improved in those patients with symptoms of diarrhea, mucus discharge, tenesmus, and obstruction. Palliation of obstructive symptoms is usually obtained after 2 to 5 sessions in 80 to 90% of patients (McGowan et al, 1989). Typically, however, palliation is not long lasting and symptoms often recur within 6 months requiring further sessions. Laser ablation is not effective in the treatment of pain or in patients with tumor involvement of the anal canal or sphincter. Complications of laser therapy occur in 5 to 15% of patients and are mostly minor; however, perforation, sepsis, and death have been reported (Gevers et al, 2000).

Argon plasma coagulation is a cost effective alternative to laser therapy for control of bleeding, but is not very useful in patients with obstruction. However, comparative studies testing the role of argon beam coagulation against other therapeutic measures are lacking (Canard et al, 2001). Injection therapy including alcohol or sclerosing agents has the advantage of low cost and simplicity of technique, but typically requires multiple treatment sessions (Marini et al, 1990). Photodynamic therapy, electrotherapy, and cryotherapy should no longer be used due to their high complication rates or side effects.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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