Outcomes Research

Inherent in the practice of evidence-based medicine is the concept of outcomes research, which is the study of "the outcomes of health care services and procedures used to prevent, diagnose, treat, and manage illness and disability" (Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, 1990). In other words, outcomes research attempts to demonstrate real and tangible effects of the integration of clinical care research into the everyday practice of medicine. Outcomes are often difficult to quantify and may differ depending on one's perspective. Few would argue that the most important outcome for patients is improvement of their health related quality of life, but in an era of increasing financial pressures and access demands, outcomes that are considered from a societal perspective, such as delineating the most cost effective approaches to disease states and minimization of practice variation, have taken on additional importance. In its simplest form, evidence-based medicine is a method of appraising the medical literature to determine the most relevant and accurate studies that will provide an answer to a focused clinical question. Studies about different aspects of a disease state (risk, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy) necessarily have different designs (Figure 1-1). Similarly, different validity criteria apply to different types of studies (Tables 1-1 through to 1-7).

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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