Postoperative Results

During the 1960s and 1970s, many centers reported operative mortality rates following pancreaticoduodenectomy in the 20 to 40% range, with postoperative morbidity rates as high as 40 to 60%. During the last two decades, a dramatic decline in operative morbidity and mortality following this operation has been reported at a number of centers, with operative mortality rates in the range of 2 to 3%. Some centers have reported large series in excess of 100 patients without 1 perioperative death (Gilsdorf and Spanos, 1973). These dramatic improvements might be attributed to concentration of these patients in high volume centers with fewer but more experienced surgeons performing the operation and improved perioperative care (Sosa et al, 1997). Unfortunately, complications rates following pancreaticoduodenectomy remain high, usually in excess of 25 to 35%. Pancreatic fistula remains the most common serious complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy, with incidence raging from 5 to 15% (Lillemore et al, 1993). The overall mortality associated with pancreatic fistula has greatly diminished over the last several decades, thanks to improved management. The most frequent complication following pylorus-preserving pancreatic resection is delayed gastric emptying, with incidence ranging from 5 to 20%. In most cases, delayed gastric emptying is temporary and resolves spontaneously after a variable period of time, resulting in a delay in hospital discharge.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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