Prevalence and Natural History

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in men and the ninth most common malignancy in women, accounting for 500,000 to 1 million cancer cases annually worldwide. Although the incidence in the United States is considerably less, it is estimated that 17,300 patients were diagnosed with HCC and 14,400 patients died of liver cancer in 2003. Unlike the incidence and death rate of most cancers that have stabilized or decreased during the past two decades, the incidence of HCC has been steadily increasing. Surgical resection remains the therapy of choice for HCC because primary treatment with traditional medical therapy yields a median survival of only 6 to 9 months. Although hepatectomy for HCC can be associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality, over the past two to three decades, the mortality rate has fallen from 20% in patients operated on before 1980 to usually less than 5% in patients undergoing liver resection thereafter. This improvement in morbidity and mortality is multifactorial and is undoubtedly related to better patient selection, improved anesthetic monitoring, greater understanding of hepatic anatomy, advances in surgical technique, and improved perioperative critical care.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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