Risk Factors

Certain individuals are far more susceptible than others to develop drug-induced liver disease. This susceptibility may be due to inherited or acquired risk factors. Chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been suggested to increase the risk for toxicity from certain drugs, such as isoniazid.The exact mechanism is still unclear, but it is speculated that an activated or altered innate immune system caused by the viral infection is important. Chronic alcohol use has also been reported to be a risk factor for methotrexate-, isoniazid-, and

TABLE 119-6. Autoantibody Targets in Drug-Induced Liver Disease

Autoantibody Target Drug

CYP2C9 Tienilic acid

CYP1A2 Dihydralazine

CYP3A1 (CYP8, CYP5A1, CYP52A) Anticonvulsants (eg, phenytoin)

CYP2E1 Halothane

Microsomal epoxide hydrase Germander acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Concomitant drug use, such as rifampicin and pyrazinamide with isoniazid or phenobarbital with valproic acid, can increase the risk for developing hepatotoxicity.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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