Sergey V KantsevoyMD PhD

Multiple congenital and acquired illnesses can lead to the development of biliary tree strictures. The most common causes of biliary strictures are intra-abdominal surgeries, especially operations on the biliary tree, such as open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy, biliary-enteric anastomosis, liver transplantation, etc. The risk factors that predispose to intraoperative bile duct injuries include poor visualization of anatomic structures, misidentification of the common bile duct for the cystic duct, inaccurate placement of sutures and clips, excessive use of cautery or laser, and development of ischemic stricture after damage of ductal vascular supply. Unrecognized congenital anomalies of the biliary tree may also lead to accidental injury with the future development of strictures.

Biliary strictures can develop after blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma, infectious, inflammatory or autoimmune conditions affecting the liver, pancreas, and biliary ducts (primary sclerosing cholangitis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and sarcoidosis, etc). Various benign and malignant tumors located in the gallbladder, bile ducts, major duodenal papilla, liver, pancreas, and adjacent organs can also cause obstruction of the biliary tree.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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