Stage 1 Cleaning

Cleaning is the first and arguably the most important stage of endoscope reprocessing. Failure to perform this stage properly has been reported to result in cross-infection (Bronowicki et al, 1997). This first stage, which is a prerequisite to high-level disinfection (stage 2), is made up of several manual cleaning steps that significantly reduce the amount of patient debris, including serum, blood, feces, bacteria, and other microorganisms, on the endoscope. Although not intended to completely remove all of the microorganisms on an endoscope, the goal of cleaning is to render the endoscope visibly clean and reduce the number of microorganisms by approximately 3 logs (or 99.9%). As a result, cleaning may shorten the exposure time required to achieve high-level disinfection. Whereas 2% glutaralde-hyde is labeled to achieve high-level disinfection of endoscopes that have not been cleaned in 45 minutes (at 25°C), this LCS after manual cleaning is reported to achieve highlevel disinfection in 20 minutes (at 20°C). Refer to the endoscope manufacturer's instructions and published guidelines for the specific steps that are required to clean the endoscope, its channels, valves, and its removable components.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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