Supplemental Reading

Kotler DP. Gastrointestinal complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In: Yamada T, editor. Textbook of gastroenterology. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1991. p. 2086-103. Kotler DP, Shimada T, Snow G, et al. Effect of combination anti-retroviral therapy upon rectal mucosal HIV RNA burden and mononuclear cell apoptosis. AIDS 1998;12:597-604.

Lübeck DP, Bennett CL, Mazonson PD, et al. Quality of life and health service use among HIV-infected patients with chronic diarrhea. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6:478-84.

Miao YM, Awad-El-Kariem FM, Franzen C, et al. Eradication of cryptosporidia and microsporidia following successful antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;25:124-9.

Nielsen RH, Orholm M, Pedersen JO, et al. Colorectal spirochetosis: clinical significance of the infection. Gastroenterology 1983;85:62-7.

Orenstein J, Chiang J, Steinberg W, et al. Intestinal microsporidio-sis as a cause of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: a report of 20 cases. Hum Pathol 1990;21:475-81.

Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV outpatient study investigators. N Engl J Med 1998;338:853-60.

Poles MA, Fuerst M, McGowan I, et al. HIV-related diarrhea is multifactorial and fat malabsorption is commonly present, independent of HAART. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:1831-7.

Rabeneck L, Laine L. Esophageal candidiasis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. A decision analysis to assess cost-effectiveness of alternative management strategies. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2705-10.

Wilcox CM, Chalasani N, Lazenby A, Schwartz D. Cytomegalovirus colitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical and endoscopic study. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;48:39-43.

Wilcox CM, Diehl DL, Cello JP, et al. Cytomegalovirus esophagi-tis in patients with AIDS. A clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic correlation. Ann Intern Med 1991;113:589-93.

Chronic Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting the Gastrointestinal Tract

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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