Supplemental Reading

Cook IJ. Diagnosis and management of cricopharyngeal achalasia and other upper esophageal sphincter opening disorders. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2000;2:191-5. Cook IJ, Gabb M, Panagopoulos V, et al. Pharyngeal (Zenker's) diverticulum is a disorder of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Gastroenterology 1992;103:1229-35. Cook IJ, Kahrilas PJ. AGA technical review on management of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Gastroenterology 1999;116:455-78. Croghan JE, Burke EM, Caplan S, Denman S. Pilot study of 12-month outcomes of nursing home patients with aspiration on videoflouroscopy. Dysphagia 1994;9:141-6. Davies AE, Kidd D, Stone SP, MacMahon J. Pharyngeal sensation and gag reflex in healthy subjects. Lancet 1995;345:487-8. Goyal RK. Disorders of the cricopharyngeus muscle. Otolaryngol

Clin North Am 1984;17:115-30. Groher M, Bukatman R. The prevalence of swallowing disorders in two teaching hospitals. Dysphagia 1986;1:3. Horner J, Massey EW, Riski JE, et al. Aspiration following stroke: clinical correlates and outcome. Neurology 1988;38:1359-62. Johnson ER, McKenzie SW, Sievers A. Aspiration pneumonia in stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:973-6. Jones B, Donner MW. The tailored examination. In: Jones B, Donner MW, editors. Normal and abnormal swallowing. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1991. p. 33-50. Kahrilas PJ. Motility disorders of the esophagus. In: Yamada T, editor. Textbook of Gastroenterology. Volume One. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1999. p. 1199-234. Logemann J. Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders.

2nd ed. Austin (TX): Pro-ed; 1998. Shaker R, Easterling C, Kern M, et al. Rehabilitation of swallowing by exercise in tube-fed patients with pharyngeal dysphagia secondary to abnormal UES opening. Gastroenterology 2002;122:1314-21. Walker AE, Robins M, Weinfeld FD. The National Survey of Stroke. Clinical findings. Stroke 1981;12:I13-44.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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