Supplemental Reading

Bronowicki P, Venard V, Botte C, et al. Patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis C virus during colonoscopy. N Engl J Med 1997;337:237-40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bronchoscopy-related infections and pseudoinfections—New York, 1996 and 1998. MMWR 1999;48:557-60. Cheung RJ, Ortiz D, DiMarino AJ. GI endoscopic reprocessing practices in the United States. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;60:362-8.

DiMarino AJ. GI endoscopic reprocessing: maintaining public confidence in the face of decreasing reimbursements. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;50:585-8. Langenberg W, Rauws EA, Oudbier JH, Tytgat GN. Patient-to-patient transmission of Campylobacter pylori infection by fiberoptic gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. J Infect Dis 1990;161:507-11. Muscarella LF. Automatic flexible endoscope reprocessors.

Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2000;10:245-57. Muscarella LF. High-level disinfection or "sterilization" of endoscopes? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:183-7. Nelson DB, Jarvis WR, Rutala WA. Multi-society guideline for reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:532-7. Struelens MJ, Rost F, Deplano A, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia after biliary endoscopy: an outbreak investigation using DNA macrorestriction analysis. Am J Med 1993;95:489-98. The Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates. Standards of infection control in reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Gastroenterol Nurs [Serial online] 2000;23:172-9.

Walter VA, DiMarino AJ. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates Endoscope Reprocessing Guidelines. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2000;10:265-73. Weber DJ, Rutala WA, DiMarino AJ. The prevention of infection following gastrointestinal endoscopy: the importance of prophylaxis and reprocessing. In: DiMarino AJ, Benjamin S, editors. Gastrointestinal Disease—An Endoscopic Approach. Thorofare (NJ): Slack, Inc.; 1999. p. 87-106.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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