Supplemental Reading

Baron TH. Expandable metal stents for the treatment of cancerous obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract [review]. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1681-7. Carazzone A, Bonavina L, Segalin A, et al. Endoscopic palliation of oesophageal cancer: results of a prospective comparison of Nd:YAG laser and ethanol injection. Eur J Surg 1999;165:351-6.

Frenken M. Best palliation in esophageal cancer: surgery, stenting, radiation, or what? [review]. Dis Esophagus 2001;14:120-3.

Heindorff H, Wojdemann M, Bisgaard T, Svendsen LB. Endoscopic palliation of inoperable cancer of the oesophagus or cardia by argon electrocoagulation. Scand J Gastroenterol 1998;33:21-3.

Hujala K, Sipila J, Minn H, et al. Combined external and intraluminal radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced oesophageal cancer. Radiotherapy Oncol 2002;64:41-5.

Lightdale CJ. Role of photodynamic therapy in the management of advanced esophageal cancer [review]. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2000;10:397-408.

Lightdale CJ, Heier SK, Marcon NE, et al. Photodynamic therapy with porfimer sodium versus thermal ablation therapy with Nd:YAG laser for palliation of esophageal cancer: a multicenter randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc 1995;42:507-12.

O'Donnell CA, Fullarton GM, Watt E, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing self-expanding metallic stents with plastic endoprostheses in the palliation of oesophageal cancer. Br J Surg 2002;89:985-92.

Siersema PD, Hop WC, van Blankenstein M, et al. A comparison of 3 types of covered metal stents for the palliation of patients with dysphagia caused by esophagogastric carcinoma: a prospective, randomized study. Gastrointest Endosc 2001;54:145-53.

Siersema PD, Marcon NE, Vakil N. Metal stents for tumors of the distal esophagus and gastric cardia [review]. Endoscopy 2003;35:79-85.

Weigel TL, Frumiento C, Gaumintz E. Endoluminal palliation for dysphagia secondary to esophageal carcinoma [review]. Surg Clin North Am 2002;82:747-61.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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