Viral Characteristics

HBV is a member of the hepadnavirus (hepatotrophic deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] virus) family. This family of viruses is characterized by a compact, partially double stranded DNA genome, which replicates via a ribonucleic acid intermediate. The viral genome encodes a polymerase with reverse transcriptase activity and has an organization analogous to that of the retroviruses. Although the retro-viruses must integrate their genetic material into the host genome in order to replicate, HBV does not require integration. However, integrations do occur, albeit randomly and with frequent deletions and rearrangements, into the DNA of the host liver cells. It is believed that these genetic integrations play an important role in the generation of liver cancers.

HBV consists of an outer envelope made up of HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and a nucleocapsid or core made up of HB core antigen, which surrounds the DNA genome and DNA polymerase enzyme. Additionally, the virus encodes a soluble protein called 'e' antigen (HBeAg), which generally circulates in the blood when the virus is actively replicating in the liver. The role of HBeAg is not fully understood and even viruses in which this gene has mutated and is not expressed are still capable of replication.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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