Antibacterial drugs

All penicillins may cause allergic rashes, which may be severe, and the broad spectrum penicillins, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and co-amoxiclav, are particularly likely to cause an intense rash in patients with glandular fever. They tend to accumulate in patients with renal failure and may reduce the excretion of methotrexate which is used in the treatment of psoriasis.

Phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V) is useful in Gram positive infections and erysipelas.

Flucloxacillin is used to treat infections due to penicillinase producing organisms. It is used in impetigo and cellulitis.

Amoxicillin and ampicillin are broad spectrum antibiotics but are destroyed by penicillinase. Co-amoxiclav is a combination of amoxacillin and clavullinic acid. It is effective against a wide range of organisms and beta lactamase producing staphylococci as well.

Cephalosporins are not affected by penicillinase and are effective against both Gram positive and Gram negative infections.

Ciprofloxacin is used for infections with both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms such as pseudomonas.

Erythromycin is used for the treatment of acne and is useful in Gram positive infections. Resistant strains of staphylococcus are appearing.

Metronidazole is useful for treating anaerobic infections and trichomonas infections. It is useful for rosacea that is not responding to conventional treatment.

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