Lichen sclerosus

The full name is lichen sclerosis et atrophicus—or LSA. This is a relatively uncommon condition seen mainly in women in whom well defined patches of superficial atrophy of the epidermis occur with a white colour. There is fibrosis of the underlying tissues. It frequently occurs in the vulva and perineum and may also appear on the penis as balanitis xerotica obliterans. Extragenital lesions may occur anywhere on the skin. It may occur in a more acute form in children where it tends to resolve, but in adults it is a very chronic condition. There is an increased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment is with topical steroids and excision of any areas that appear to be developing tumours.

The cause of the hyalinized collagen and epidermal atrophy is unknown, but in early lesions there is an infiltrate of lymphocytes with CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 markers. There is also an increase in Langerhans cells, so there may well be an immunological basis for these changes.

CREST syndrome

CREST syndrome
Calcinosis cutis
How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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