Nail infections

These occur mainly in adults, usually in their toenails, especially when traumatised—for example the big toes of

Animal ringworm

Microsporum canis
Fungal infection of nail

footballers. The nails become thickened and yellow and crumble, usually asymmetrically. The changes occur distally and move back to the nailfold. In psoriasis of the nail the changes occur proximally and tend to be symmetrical and are associated with pitting and other evidence of psoriasis elsewhere.

Chronic paronychia occurs in the fingers of individuals whose work demands repeated wetting of the hands: housewives, barmen, dentists, nurses, and mushroom growers, for example. Other predisposing factors include diabetes, poor peripheral circulation, and removal of the cuticle. There is erythema and swelling of the nail fold, often on one side with brownish discoloration of the nail. Pus may be exuded. The cause is Candida albicans (a yeast) together with secondary bacterial infection.

Pushing back the cuticles should be avoided—this is commonly a long term condition, lasting for years. The hands should be kept as dry as possible, an azole lotion applied regularly around the nail fold, and in acute flares a course of erythromycin prescribed.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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