Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma represents proliferation of the epidermal keratinocytes in a deranged manner—with a visible degree of differentiation into epidermal cells that may show individual cell keratinisation and "pearls" of keratin. In other tumours bizarre cells with mitoses, cells with clear cytoplasm, or spindle cells may be seen.

This type of cancer often develops from a preceding solar keratosis or an area of Bowen's disease. They may also complicate a chronic ulcer due to stasis, as in venous ulcer of the ankle, or infection such as leprosy or tuberculosis. In addition to local spread, metastases can occur with involvement of other organs such as the liver, lung or brain, and lymphadenopathy. The first change clinically is a thickening of the skin with scaling or hyperkeratosis of the surfaces. The more differentiated tumours often have a warty, keratotic crust whereas others may be nodular. The edge is poorly defined. There may be associated dilated, telangiectatic blood vessels. The original hard, disc-like lesion becomes nodular and ulcerates with strands of tumour cells invading the deeper tissue. The thick warty crust, often found elsewhere, may be absent from the lesions on the lip, buccal mucosa, and penis.

These histological changes complement the clinical appearance and are clearly different from those of basal cell carcinoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma—more differentiated tumour

Squamous cell carcinoma—more differentiated tumour

Squamous neoplastic cells
Squamous cell carcinoma—histological appearance
How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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