As the name implies, there is extensive sclerosis of the connective tissue of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and heart. Endothelial cell damage in the capillaries results in fibrosis and sclerosis of the organs concerned. The skin becomes tethered to the subcutaneous tissues and immobile, leading to fixed claw like hands, constricted mouth with furrowed lips, and beak-like nose. There are vascular changes producing Raynaud's phenomenon and telangiectasia around
the mouth and on the fingers. There are also flat "mat-like" telangiectasia on the face.
Workers manufacturing polyvinyl chloride can develop skin changes similar to systemic sclerosis with erosions of the bones, hepatic and pulmonary lesions. Pesticides and epoxy resin can also produce scleroderma-like changes.
It is associated with antinuclear antibodies (speckled or nucleolar), and in about 50% of cases, circulating immune complexes may be present.
A variant is the CREST syndrome. In this type of scleroderma there is Calcinosis with calcium deposits below the skin on the fingers and toes, Raynaud's phenomenon with poor peripheral circulation, immobility of the oEsophagus, dermal Sclerosis of the fingers and toes, and Telangiectasia of the face and lips and adjacent to the toe and finger nails. It has a better prognosis than systemic sclerosis. Antinuclear antibodies at the centromere are frequently present.
Morphoea is a benign form of localised systemic sclerosis in which there is localised sclerosis with very slight inflammation. There is atrophy of the overlying epidermis. The early changes often consist of a dusky appearance to the skin.
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Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.