• Acute trauma. This may remove the whole nail.
• Chronic trauma as a result of badly fitting footwear may cause thickening of the nail with deformed growth, onychogryphosis. Chronic trauma due to overenthusiastic manicuring or habitual picking at finger nails can result in deformity and impaired growth.
• Repeated trauma in occupations that involve repetitive action, such as assembling cardboard boxes, may cause detachment of the nail (onycholysis) or splitting of the nails.
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