Additional information is needed for the evaluation of health risks in farmed and feral fish populations. Further studies should include the confirmation of CHV isolation from skin lesions in coloured, farmed and wild carp strains, a search for cases of naturally occurring CHS in fry and the determination of its range and economic significance. In addition, the elucidation of persistent infection with CHV and mechanisms of its reactivation and the influence of the genetic makeup of carp strains on host-virus interactions (including immune response) and the comparison of isolates from geographical regions and the metabolism of minerals in induced and natural cases of EHPC are also needed. Methods should be developed for virus isolation from fish pox in other species.
Bittner made several additional observations the importance of the host in the final assault by the virus, including the significance of the genetic background, the hormonal makeup in the formation of the mammary tumor, and the age of the host. In some respects, the modern tumor biologist shares Bittner's concerns but now addressed with new words (1) host factors (genetic), (2) initiating oncogenes (virus), and (3) promoter context (hormonal factor). By 1945, Andervont was emboldened to speculate that the Bittner agent was a virus (Andervont, 1945). A detailed account of Bittner's and Andervont's experimental observations has been provided in Ludwig Gross's monograph (Gross, 1970).
Variables associated with rapid disease progression include a symptomatic PHI, older age at diagnosis and receiving a large inoculum of virus, for example via a contaminated transfusion from a donor with a high viral load. The effect of prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (for example cotrimoxazole for pneumocystis and toxoplasmosis) has been to delay the onset of AIDS and to change the pattern of disease represented by the first AIDS-defining illness. Antiretroviral treatment has independently been shown to increase survival before and after AIDS. Some infected individuals do not progress for many years and work is in progress to determine whether this is due to their genetic makeup, amount of viral inoculum, characteristics of the infective virus or their immune system.
Proulx 571 reviewed the published lipid compositions of brush-border membranes (BBM) isolated from epithelial cells from pig, rabbit, mouse, and rat small intestines. Table 7.1 shows the lipid makeup for the rat, averaged from five reported studies 571 . Kramer et al. 572,573 reported Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and BBB lipid composition profiles, listed in Table 7.1, for comparative purposes. Also shown are typical compositions of soy- and egg-derived lecithin extracts. Sugano's composition 561,562 is an attempt to mimic the BBLM. Table 7.1 lists the anionic-to-zwitterionic lipid weight ratios. On a molar basis, cholesterol accounts for about 50 of the total lipid content (37 on a weight basis) in the BBLM. The cholesterol content in BBLM is higher than that found in kidney epithelial (MDCK) and cultured brain endothelial cells (Table 7.1). (Slightly different BBLM lipid composition was reported by Alcorn et al. 433 .) The outer (luminal) leaflet of the BBLM is rich in...
The task of predicting three dimensional structure from amino acid sequence is described in detail in the introductory chapter of this volume. In brief, the genome of an organism specifies the makeup of all of the proteins that constitute that organism. The genes specify a linear sequence of amino acids, which are assembled at the ribosome. Although the proteins are constructed as a linear sequence, they only become chemically active when they have folded up into a particular three-dimensional conformation. The positions of each atom in the protein in three-space is called its structure (or, more specifically, its tertiary structure). Proteins are very large molecules, and the folded shape can hide some regions, expose others, and bring elements of the protein that were at opposite ends of the sequence close together in space. These factors are important in determining what the function of the molecule is in the living system, and how it performs that function. Determining the...
Harmless polyacrylamide is used widely in industry, including water treatment, paper and textile production, cosmetics, grouting agents, and gel electrophoresis. Workers who handle monomeric acrylamide for production of polyacrylamide are at risk. Absorption is generally through the skin, but may also occur through inhalation or ingestion.
An avalanche of advice literature, especially texts dealing with health and diet, was a major product of the print revolution. Popular texts in the vernacular told people what foods, drugs, and spices were ''good'' or ''bad'' for their health, explaining proper food choices in terms of humoral and medical theories. Advice on hygiene still discussed the Galenic rules of health or regimen in terms of the six non-naturals food and drink, air or the environment, exercise and rest, sleep and waking, evacuation and repletion, and the passions of the soul or the emotions. Similar formats were adopted by texts that gave advice to wealthy readers about sex, clothing, cosmetics, health, family life, managing pregnancy and childbirth, wet-nursing, child rearing, and so forth. Medical writers had to find ways of adapting medical theories to New World plants such as tomatoes, potatoes, and tobacco that were being used as foods and drugs. Written advice could get very detailed without causing...
Prohibit, inter alia, distribution of foods, food and color additives, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics that are unsafe or injurious to health set standards for environmental contaminants in food as necessary for the protection of public health set safe tolerances to protect the public health from pesticide residues on raw agricultural commodities (EPA sets the tolerances)
Nanoparticles formed from materials as diverse as titanium dioxide and phospholipids are highly attractive to biomedical engineers as vehicles to deliver a variety of cosmetics, drugs, and diagnostic materials to targeted sites in the human body. Nanoparticles employed in the pharmaceutical industry are typically formed from elongated biomolecules, such as phos-pholipids, having one hydrophilic end and one hydrophobic end. Molecules having the latter properties are known as amphiphilic (also called amphi-pathic) molecules or amphiphiles. Phospholipids are typical amphiphiles with phosphatidylcholine being the favored phospholipid used to form biological nanoparticles. Phospholipid-based nanoparticles are particularly attractive as in vivo drug diagnostic delivery devices since they are formed from nontoxic substances normally found in cells and cell membranes. Early researchers using liposome-encapsulated anticancer drugs found that higher drug levels could be delivered to solid...
Risk factors for varicose veins include increasing age and parity and occupations that require a lot of standing. There is no evidence that social class, smoking, or genetic makeup influence the prevalence of varicose veins. Obesity is associated with the development of varicose veins in women but not in men.
The third type of model does not require any manipulation of the animal at all, as the disease develops spontaneously. The best described of these are the murine strains BXSB, (NZBxNZW) F1, NZM, MRL Fas+ +, and MRL Fasp which develop forms of SLE that serve as excellent models of the autoantibody specificities and pathology of the human disease 63 . Dwight Kono provides an overview of the genetics leading to autoimmunity in these models in Chapter 23. While the variety of autoantibodies developed by these different strains continues to be investigated, the common autoantibody response, like human SLE, is against chromatin and its subcomponents including DNA 38, 64 . In the (NZBxNZW) F1 strain, autoimmune disease and autoantibodies occur earlier and more frequently in female mice, a finding that has been revealed to be associated with the presence of female sex hormones. Because of this and other features, the (NZBxNZW) F1 strain is considered the best animal model of human SLE. As...
The initial purpose of the first Pure Food, Drug & Cosmetics Act (Act) that was passed by Congress in the first decade of the last century was one of safety. It began by the regulation of those items of commerce that had the potential of poisoning the individual who used it if the product was contaminated. It is for this reason that the Act covered those three specific items, all lumped together although each being used for very different purposes.
An allele is any alternative form of a gene that can occupy a particular chromosomal locus. A genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual, or the alleles present at one or more specific loci. A phe-notype is the entire physical, biochemical, and physiological makeup of an individual (as opposed to genotype).
Local treatment is important for cosmesis of cutaneous lesions. Superficial radiotherapy is given using 100 kV X-rays applied directly to the skin or palate. A dose of 8Gy in a single fraction achieves good palliation in 70 of lesions, particularly in early KS with little haemosiderin staining. The area of the lesion is treated with a margin using a lead cutout to protect surrounding tissues. The dose should be given in divided doses on consecutive days (fractionation) to sensitive areas such as the soles or face. Radiotherapy can be repeated if further regression is required or relapse occurs. Alternative treatments include camouflaging with cosmetics and intralesional injection with vinblastine or interferon.
Indeed, it is the cosmetics industry that is at the center of this controversy, for it is quick to market any compound that may be used as an antiwrinkle cream or skin exfoliant for what they call the vibrant, youthful look. Whether they have the right to do so is up to governmental agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, which oversees the marketing of any compound that claim to have medicinal properties.
Not all prescriptions in the medical papyri were for life-threatening conditions. The medical texts also contain recipes for cosmetics and hair restoratives, such as a mixture of burnt hedgehog quills mixed with oil. Another ingenious recipe could be applied to the head of a woman one hated in order to make her hair fall out. Cosmetics generally reflect only vanity and the tyranny of fashion, but cleansing unguents, perfumes, and pigments probably had valuable astringent and antiseptic properties.
A-nitroso compounds are produced by reactions of amines with nitrites. These reactions occur in foods, cosmetics, tobacco products, cutting oils and in rubber manufacture (Tricker and Preussmann, 1991 Lijinsky, 1992). Several A-nitroso compounds have been shown to form spontaneously in sewage and lake water containing simultaneously high levels of nitrates or nitrites and dimethyl- or trimethylamines (Ayanaba and Alexander, 1974). It has also been reported that mutagenic A-nitroso compounds can be formed in the muscle of fish exposed to high levels of environmental nitrate (De Flora and Arillo, 1983). There have been no reports of neoplasia in wild fish exposed to nitrosamines however, the A-nitroso compounds have been widely used as carcinogens in experimental exposures.
Wormwood is sometimes grown as an ornamental (Gabriel, 1979) and when dried, also used in flower arrangements. Culinary uses are limited because of the very bitter flavour of the plant. Tender foliage and non-woody top parts are used either fresh or dried as seasoning usually with boiled or roasted fatty meats, improving flavour as well as making them more digestible (Kybal, 1980). The essential oil extracted from wormwood has very limited uses in the field of fragrance and cosmetics (Heath, 1977) and in some external analgesics (Lawrence, 1977). Extracts are nowadays taken rarely for medicinal purposes, and then only for digestive complaints. More recently, interest has focused on potential medicinal benefits from individual and groups of compounds (Perez-Souto, 1992), rather than crude extracts from the plant (Hernandez et al., 1990). Wormwood is still used in small quantitites as a flavouring agent in alcoholic beverages (Martindale, 1978), such as absinthe, bitters, tonics,...
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