Save Your Marriage
Many different approaches have been, and continue to be, used by therapists in their efforts to promote change in families. As the field developed, most of the pioneers became identified with particular methods, and so schools of family therapy came to be identified. Nevertheless, there was, from the start, much overlap between the methods of different therapists and schools. It can also be difficult to know how far the success of a particular approach is due, on the one hand, to the theoretical underpinnings and the methods used and, on the other hand, to the personality and charisma of the therapist. Many of the pioneers were powerful personalities, with well-developed interpersonal skills and great powers of persuasion. Even today, the ability of therapists to establish rapport with the families they treat, and to be convincing in the interventions they offer, is probably at least as important as their theoretical persuasion or the school of therapy to which they subscribe. Subject...
The strategic school of therapy is less well defined than some of the other schools. Cloe Madanes, in her 1981 book, Strategic Family Therapy, suggested that it is the responsibility of the therapist to plan a strategy to solve the client's problems. She saw strategic therapy stemming from the work of Milton Erickson, who often used indirect means of promoting change in his patients. These means are discussed below in the section Indirect Interventions and Injunctions. A problem with the term strategic therapy,'' however, is that presumably every effective therapist uses strategies of some sort in attempting to assist families make the changes they seek. It is thus somewhat imprecise. This brief overview comes nowhere near to covering all the schools of, or approaches to, family therapy. It is presented to make the point that there are many possible approaches to the task of helping families change.
The identification of couples and families as a system for which psychological intervention is appropriate and even advantageous is a relatively recent phenomenon. In this section, we highlight important movements, historical developments, and influential contributors to the development of couples therapy from the post-World War I era to the present. Although the idealistic vision of sexual reformers was impeded in Europe, the development of couples and family therapy continued in the United States. Social workers emphasized the need to expand interventions to include the family. Educators implemented home economics courses in high schools nationwide. Workshops addressing family and marital issues were offered through churches and universities. Finally, new psychoanalytic theories (such as object relations theory) opened the door for psychological interventions beyond just one individual. Emerging from such varied fields, the marriage counseling movement was both eclectic and...
Short-term, problem-focused couples therapy was developed in response to the difficulties that arise in treating two individuals who may have different agendas and intentions for entering into therapy as well as for the current difficulties in receiving reimbursement for couples treatment from insurance companies. Two major models of brief couples therapy have been developed and evaluated in the last three decades. Brief problem-focused therapy was developed at the Mental Research Institute (MRI) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The model was further developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (the Milwaukee model), as brief solution-focused therapy beginning in the late 1970s.
The family therapy approach to the treatment of mental health problems was developed during the years that followed the Second World War. Psychotherapists of various mental health disciplines, together with researchers from other disciplines, began to look at their patients' families as possibly contributing to the disorders they were treating. The idea that families might have a part in the genesis of psychiatric disorders was not new. Freud and others from the early days of psychoanalysis had postulated that the early childhood family relationships of their patients had caused the neurosis with which these patients presented. In those early days, however, the response was to separate the patients from their families for treatment. This was accomplished either by seeing patients for treatment on their own while having minimal or no contact with their families or by admitting them to psychiatric hospitals or other institutions where they could be cared for and treated away from the...
Several distinct approaches for couples therapy have been developed based on systems theory. One of the most prominent and widely practiced is Bowen Family Systems Therapy (BFST). This section begins with a general overview of systems theory followed by a more in-depth description of BFST. The systems approach emphasizes the organization of the family as a whole and the patterns of interaction that the family engages in. The family, or in this case the couple, is seen as made up of elements that are organized by the consistent nature of the relationship between them. Couples Therapy
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) emphasizes the behaviors that partners exchange and the antecedents and consequences of those behaviors. Although be-haviorists acknowledge the role of affect and cognition in the development and maintenance of distress, they target the external determinants of behavior as the point of intervention for distressed couples. Ther
Integrative Behavior Couples Therapy (IBCT) was developed by Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson to increase the power and effectiveness of Behavior Couples Therapy. It is strongly rooted in behavior theory and uses many of the same treatment strategies as BCT. It does not, however, focus on promoting behavioral change exclusively, but gives equal emphasis to acceptance of partners' behavior the way it is. This shift in focus has both theoretical and practical implications for therapy. First, IBCT targets major controlling variables for change, rather than derivative variables. In BCT, because of the exclusive emphasis on discrete, currently observable behavior, functional analysis often focuses on variables only indirectly related to partners' dissatisfaction, for example, Diane's complaint that Joe comes home late from work. The IBCT therapist would attempt to uncover the underlying controlling variable, that is, the wife's desire for more closeness with her husband. The IBCT...
In a sense, this is a contradiction in terms, since family therapy is concerned with family systems, and not primarily with the psychopathology of family members. But many of the figures who played major roles in the early development of family therapy came to it from a psychoanalytic background. As far as there is such a thing as psychodynamic family therapy, it seems to be therapy that aims to help family members gain insight into themselves and how they react with each other. See Psychoanalysis.
Theoretical Approaches in Conducting Couples Therapy IV. Integrative Approaches to Couples Therapy V. Couples Therapy for Specific Psychiatric Disorders This article presents five major approaches to COUPLES THERAPY and discusses their relative effectiveness in treating relationship distress. Each of these approaches is based on a theory of the development of relationship distress and uses specific therapeutic techniques to help alleviate this distress. In addition, two recent integrative approaches are presented that combine elements of the previous approaches in an attempt to increase the effectiveness of the intervention. Interventions for couples with psychiatric disorders and alternative interventions, such as group couples therapy and prevention, are also discussed.
The Development of Family Therapy III. Schools of Family Therapy FAMILY THERAPY is a treatment approach that takes the family unit as its focus. Family therapists understand the emotional and behavioral problems of individuals as often being related to problems in the family systems of which they are part. They believe that by working to promote change in the family, the symptoms and problems of the family's members will be resolved, or at least ameliorated. Sometimes, but less often, it is the family as a group that presents with problems. An important feature of the family therapy approach is an emphasis on the concept of circular, rather than linear causation. Family therapists are reluctant to regard events or behaviors in families as due to single, isolated causes, but tend to see them as parts of, usually complex, chains of events.
We are gathered here today to say goodbye to our friend and family member, Roland. Roland was a wonderful father and husband. He loved and enjoyed spending time with his family Roland's children grew up to be successful and happy He loved and cherished his wife throughout their marriage. He was careful to keep the romance alive, even until the end. Roland was a true friend to many of us here today When someone needed help, Roland was the first to offer His door was always open. Whether or not people needed his time or even his money, Roland was generous. Roland also gave to his community he organized members of his congregation to pick up seniors who were unable to drive so that they could attend church services and functions. Truly, he made the world a little better place.
Threat, for instance, results when the individual feels on the brink of an imminent, comprehensive change in core identity constructs, as when marital discord reaches a crisis point, and the threatened spouse recoils from the awful recognition that divorce will mean a wholesale reworking of his or her view of the self and world. Anxiety arises with the awareness that
Such stressors, especially when more than one is present, may be the primary cause of the child's apparent ADHD impairments, or they may simply be exacerbating ADHD impairments that have been present since birth. The incidence of unemployment, marital conflict, substance abuse, and frequent changes of residence is elevated among individuals with ADHD. The presence of environmental stressors, even if they are many and severe, does not rule out a diagnosis of ADHD any more than such stressors would rule out a diagnosis of asthma.
The cognitive model of depression has found support for descriptive aspects of its theory and for its treatment efficacy. Cognitive therapy has also been applied to a number of other psychological disorders, including anxiety, personality disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, stress, and marital conflict. More recently, it has been applied to nonclinical problems, such as management problems in business and conflict resolution in schools.
The results of studies of the typologies of batterers generally agree on at least three subtypes based on their violent behavior, the family history, as well as the personality characteristics and disorders of the bat-terer. First are the family-only batterers who show the least severe levels of emotional abuse and violence to their partner. This group of men is least likely to be violent outside the home, is less psychologically abusive, is more likely to report being satisfied in their marriages, and is less likely to have a history of being The second categorical dimension is the pan-violent or antisocial batterer. Approximately one-fourth of batterers in treatment programs fit this description. Generally, pan-violent batterers have the highest rates of severe physical assault to their partners and are most likely to behave in violent ways in settings outside of the family. Not surprisingly, they have high rates of substance abuse, arrest, and involvement with the legal system....
In the first controlled outcome study comparing a variant of psychoanalytic couples therapy (Insight-Oriented Marital Therapy, IOMT) with BCT, Snyder and colleagues found IOMT and BCT equally effective at termination and at a 6-month follow-up. Four years after treatment, however, a significantly larger percentage of couples had divorced when treated with BCT (38 ) than when treated with IOMT (3 ). These findings have been disputed, with critics questioning whether therapists using the BCT intervention used state-of-the-art behavioral interventions. Nevertheless, Snyder et al. have provided at least preliminary evidence that psychoanalytic couples therapy may have more long-term effectiveness than behavioral approaches. See Psychoanalysis.
The social action part of the program actively engages group members in working together to identify and to challenge some aspect of violence in their own community. First, there is a series of exercises aimed at teaching group members about resources available to teenagers, men, and women in their community. Next, group members develop a social action or a fundraising activity in which they all participate. Examples include setting up a display about stopping sexual assault in a shopping mall and selling t-shirts to raise funds for a local battered women's shelter. In this way teenagers put their skills to use on the broader community level. Along the way they learn to respect one another and themselves, to think differently about sex roles and family roles, and to develop healthier relationships as they work together to stop violence against women.
Discovering the connection between emotions and relationships Examining your relationship Enhancing your relationship with positive actions Dealing with endings Numerous studies indicate that good relationships and social support improve both mental and physical health. Humans apparently are social animals that are biologically programmed to function better when in supportive relationships. Like gorillas, birds, and ants, we thrive in close-knit colonies. Therefore, working to improve your relationships can help boost your moods, increase your ability to handle stress, and create a sense of well-being. Yet, distressing emotions can get in the way of your attempts to improve your relationships. Such emotions can harm friendships, intimate relationships, and even relationships with co-workers or relative strangers. So, along with the obvious ways of working to alleviate your anxiety or depression, shoring up your relationships will also improve your moods.
Each of these developmental challenges is ongoing and multifaceted, often changing and evolving in complex ways over the adult years. Some adults invest most of their efforts and interest in their job. They may labor through a long career in one setting, or they may make a series of lateral or vertical moves, some or all of which involve new demands on executive functions. For others, paid work is much less important. For them time with a partner or family remains of primary importance throughout their adult years. Still others may have few long-term relationships or stay mostly to themselves. For many of these adults, there is a continuing struggle to balance somewhat equally the demands and satisfaction of work or personal interests with the challenges and rewards of family and friends.
Compare your own long-term relationship(s) with those of your friends and family. What types of division of roles characterise them Why do you think that different patterns develop of the sharing of labour in enduring relationships To some extent, long-term relationships and small family circles are a product of the present time within Western society. What are your views on alternative social structures Do small nuclear families necessarily represent the best background for development across the lifespan
Marriage or its equivalent long-term relationship brings about a huge change in ways of life. Whatever form a marriage takes, it must involve a sorting out of roles, that is, who does what and when. Where do the responsibilities lie This may seem a minor matter, but to anyone who has experienced it, it is not. To settle into living with another person, in an intimate relationship, requires considerable adjustment. To take the USA as an example (although it may be the extreme example), one half to two-thirds of American marriages end in divorce and some other enduring marriages are unhappy. What is it, then, that makes marriages or long-term relationships happy Why do some succeed and others fail This is a description of some of the behaviours of happy couples in successful long-term relationships. Turning the coin over, these ways of behaving in a relationship could be seen as prescriptions for happiness, actions to aim at if one wishes to develop a satisfactory and enduring...
Here the emphasis is on the patterns and styles of communication in the family. It was observed, from the earliest days of the family therapy movement, that families with symptomatic members often had major communication problems. These may involve Distinguishing one school of family therapy as particularly concerned with communication should not be taken to mean that therapists of other schools are not interested in family communication. It is merely a matter of emphasis. Indeed, Haley, who has been described as being of the communication and power'' school, also emphasizes the importance of establishing appropriate hierarchical arrangements within families a concept that has much in common with structural therapy.
Since family therapy aims to help families find new ways of functioning, a simple and straightforward approach is to offer the family suggestions, designed to help them make the changes that the assessment has shown to be needed in their way of functioning. The suggestions might be concerned with how family members could behave differently toward each other, or communicate more effectively, or alter their respective roles in the family or whatever appears to be needed. They will also be related to the therapist's theory of change. Family Therapy Behavioral family therapy tends to use predominantly direct methods. The contingencies that appear to be controlling the behaviors that need to be changed are addressed directly.
Promoting change is, of course, the essence of family therapy. To achieve this the therapist must have a coherent theory of change. This can be based on any of the theoretical schemes outlined above, or on others that exist. The therapist's theory of change is then the basis for the interventions he or she employs. The actual techniques used vary widely, but certain stages are required a. The establishment of rapport. As rapport develops, the participants become intensively involved with each other trust also develops. The process has been given other names some therapists refer to it as joining the family or building working alliances. The process may occur quickly or it may take an entire session, even several. It involves both verbal and nonverbal techniques. Time spent establishing rapport is, however, seldom wasted. Lack of sufficient rapport is a major cause of failure in family therapy and indeed in most endeavors that involve relationships with others.
With any presenting problem, the possible influence of significant others in the maintenance of a problem should be explored. Behavior occurs in a context. How significant others respond makes up an important part of our environment. Significant others are those who interact with clients and influence their behavior. Examples include family members and staff in residential settings. Significant others are often involved in assessment. For example, in family therapy, family members participate in assessment. Understanding relationships among family members is a key part of assessment in family therapy. Interactions between couples is closely examined in relationship counseling. Clients may lack social support such as opportunities for intimacy, companionship, and validation or the opportunity to provide support to others. Social interactions may be a source of stress rather than a source of pleasure and joy. It is important to assess the nature and quality of the client's social...
Social Constructionism An epistemological approach that emphasizes the socially shared meanings developed between people about phenomena experienced by a culture or society. In contrast to constructivism this approach emphasizes the ambient meanings that exist prior to any individual and that serve as the basis for people's identity and forms of relating. Systemic Approaches A general psychotherapeu-tic approach common to family therapy that emphasizes the ways in which one's embeddedness in a network of interpersonal relationships (which can encompass family, community, and organization) affects the experiences and behavior of persons in the system as well as the functioning of the system as a whole.
In the 1980s with the founding of The International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology in 1988. This forum was renamed Journal of Constructivist Psychology in 1994 to accommodate the growing diversity of constructivist scholarship beyond Kelly's personal construct psychology. Increasing interest in constructivist theory, research, and practice in both individual and family therapy has enriched the field, spawning the diversity of constructivist perspectives outlined below.
Not every family that has a member with ADD syndrome is as disrupted as these examples. Many families have one or several members with ADHD, including both parents and children, and function extraordinarily well. In cases where family interactions become very problematic, however, it may be wise to consult a skilled counselor who understands not only the dynamics of family life, but also ADHD and related problems. In such situations it is very important that the difficulties be conceptualized as a problem of the family system, involving multiple family members, and not just as fallout from the impairments of one person. Craig Everett and Sandra Everett (1999) have written about how theories and strategies of family therapy can be adapted to help couples and families affected by ADHD.
Who are understandably drawn to simpler models that work with a limited range of concepts and techniques. However, the preliminary research that has been conducted on these novel forms of practice suggests that they are often more acceptable to clients than more regimented, prescriptive alternatives, that they can be effective for even quite discrete problems such as speech disfluencies, phobias, and social anxieties, and that they are adaptable to a range of formats including individual, group, and family therapy. With recent and ongoing efforts to examine their efficacy in the treatment of eating disorders, sexual abuse, and other serious clinical problems, we are optimistic that they will continue to contribute to the refinement of both psychotherapy research and practice.
Couples and family therapists have developed specialized interventions for a wide variety of psychiatric disorders, including depression, alcohol, and a variety of anxiety disorders. Outcome studies have generally found that intervening with couples and families (rather than individuals) leads to lower drop-out rates and higher treatment success rates. Behavioral and cognitive couples treatments for depression have been found to reduce depression and increase satisfaction when the depressed person is in a distressed relationship. Behavioral Couples Therapy has also been shown to reduce alcoholism and to improve couples' satisfaction. Finally, spousal involvement has been shown to increase the effectiveness of behavioral treatments for agoraphobia.
Although brief couples therapy offers no theory about the development of distress, it does focus on the perception of distress. A couple has a problem when they perceive a problem, and the problem is alleviated when the couple perceives such alleviation. Brief couples therapy makes no attempt to objectively define dysfunction or normality in marriage. Furthermore, brief couples therapy does not seek to understand the origin of the particular presenting problem, but rather to identify and alter the behaviors of both partners that serve to maintain the current problem.
Brief couples therapy was developed to be as efficient and parsimonious as possible. The goal of brief couples therapy is to address and provide relief for the presenting complaint. Therapists do not probe for underlying emotional or unconscious issues, they do not seek to promote personal growth in their clients, nor do they spend time teaching communication or problem-solving skills. Consistent with these goals, brief couples therapy offers no developed theory regarding couples distress or its development. Instead, it takes couples' complaints at face value and works for the relief of those complaints through lessening the behaviors related to the presenting problem (the MRI Couples Therapy
The techniques used in psychoanalytic couples therapy are more attitudinal than behavioral. The therapist typically engages in careful, undirected listening and, later, in interpretations. The therapist begins with a period of assessment that allows the couple to understand the nature of the undertaking so that they may freely choose to enter into psychoanalytic couples therapy. In this assessment process, called securing the frame, the therapist outlines the parameters for therapy, including setting the fee and scheduling the sessions, which creates a safe and stable environment for the partners. It is also the first opportunity for partners to attempt to gratify unconscious wishes by encroaching on the frame, which provides insight into the unconscious difficulties affecting the marriage. For example, Joe might object to the therapist's policy that he must attend therapy every week and that he must pay the therapist her usual fee if he misses an appointment. He may feel infantalized...
When he began appropriate medication treatment, the husband experienced dramatic, rapid improvement in many of his ADD symptoms. This did not suddenly resolve all the couple's marital problems, but it cre In this couple, the man found a woman who was attracted to him for many reasons, one of which was that he needed and wanted the nurtu-rance and support that she was motivated by her earlier life experiences to provide. He was strongly motivated to become bonded to a caring person who would provide the scaffolding earlier provided by his mother to compensate for persisting impairments of his ADD syndrome. And she found and joined herself to this man whose need and wish for her to provide such intensive scaffolding was, at least initially, appealing and rewarding to her. Over the many years of their marriage, the wishes and needs of each partner changed, resulting in the conflict that threatened to disrupt their marriage.
Whether there is a true school of extended family therapy may be questioned. Indeed it is probable that none of the schools we are discussing here exists in pure form. What we are describing are the points, the aspects of therapy, to which each school pays particular attention.
Beck's original formulation of depression describes nonendogenous, unipolar depression. He later refined his theory to include six separable but overlapping models cross-sectional, structural, stressor-vulnerability, reciprocal interaction, psychobiological, and evolutionary. This reformulation was made to describe comprehensively the onset and maintenance of various types of depression. It was articulated in response to such developments in psychology as the growing interest in Bowlby's attachment theory, the emergence of evolutionary psychology, and findings on marital interaction and depression. For example, the original cognitive model exemplifies the stressor-vulnerability model. The maintenance of depression seen in marital discord demonstrates the reciprocal interaction model.
Family therapy has been demonstrated to be highly effective in the treatment of adolescent eating disorders, particularly AN (Russell et al, 1987 Eisler et al, 1997). The explicit treatment aim is to assist parents in regaining appropriate parental control over their child's eating behavior and weight gain.
Marital or family therapy sessions, too, may help to identify unrecognized misunderstandings and may improve maladaptive patterns of interaction between partners or other family members, but these techniques do not, in themselves, change the chemical problems underlying ADD syndrome. Finally, accommodations such as extended time for taking examinations or a minimally distracting workplace may provide some help for students or workers with ADHD, but they are not needed by every patient with ADD syndrome and, in any case, do not alleviate the underlying problems.
A careful assessment of the problems listed on Axis IV may suggest that, in some cases, the most appropriate intervention will not focus on the individual (as is the case with psychological counseling or the prescription of psychotropic medication), but rather on the broader social environment in which the individual must exist. In such cases, the primary intervention could involve not only mental health professionals (e.g., providing family therapy), but teachers, landlords, lawyers, insurance companies, and so on. On the other hand, some mental disorders may arise in the relative absence of psychosocial and environmental problems and suggest that the treatment might most fruitfully focus on the individual.
Alternative treatments for distressed couples have been developed to improve the success rates of more traditional couples treatments as well as to provide less costly interventions. Two prevalent alternative approaches are group couples therapy and prevention enrichment programs. In group couples therapy, couples help each other as firsthand observers of couples' conflict and provide perspective on the problems each couple is experiencing. The group process provides an arena where couples can learn from one another, obtain insight, experience support, and receive feedback. Preliminary descriptive data on the outcome of group therapy indicates that most couples experience improvement at termination in areas as diverse as communication, reframing problems, appreciating each other more as individuals, and feeling more acceptance toward the partner's family of origin. Couples Therapy ples' relationships attempt to spare the couple and their children from the negative consequences of...
Marital functioning and family functioning A variety of treatment modalities are employed, the most common being individual, group, and family therapies. These may be employed concurrently or in progression, depending upon the structure of the treatment program, the functioning of the child, and the treatment issues being addressed. See Family Therapy.
The need for effective treatments for couple distress has grown in the last few decades for several reasons the United States has the highest divorce rate of any major industrialized country, there has been a sharp increase in divorce rates from 1960 to 1980, and there is unambiguous evidence that marital distress and divorce have harmful consequences for spouses and children. As a result, couples therapists and researchers have de
Given the high frequency of infertility, the use of cryopreservation, and the high divorce rate, we can expect to see more legal battles over embryos, especially since few legislatures seem willing to craft the needed regulations. This reluctance is almost certainly due to their terror of enacting any law that seems to support the holding in Roe v. Wade. Although more than 100 IVF clinics are operating in the United States, more than 20,000 IVF babies have been born, and at least thousands of human embryos are in cold storage, the industry remains unregulated. In sharp contrast, in Great Britain since 1990 the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has licensed and monitored all IVF clinics, keeping track of stored embryos and enforcing rules on disposition.
Been through many definitions over the years. This is, perhaps, because it is something that is both within and without the person. Certainly, some circumstances (such as losing one's job, a marriage break-up, moving house, having a child with a chronic illness, retiring, etc.) are stressful to many people. But all of these events are not necessarily stressful to everyone and nor are they stressful to the same degree in everyone. So, there are large individual differences in stress reactions. Stress is the result of an interaction between the individual and the environment, and for a highly readable analysis of stress, see Overton (2005).
The concept of family structure, either overtly expressed or implied, is common to many schools of family therapy. It was well described by Salvador Minuchin in his 1974 book, Families and Family Therapy. It is related to systems theory concepts in that the perceived structure in a family system consists of the various subsystems in the family and the nature that is strength and permeability of the boundaries between them. The nature of the boundaries that exist between the subsystems in families is of great interest to the structural family therapist. Related to this are the concepts of enmeshment and disengagement. Enmeshment is said to exist when the boundaries between family members or subsystems are weak and readily permeable it implies an overclose involvement of those concerned. When families members are enmeshed, their behaviors and, often, emotional states have marked effects on each other. In contrast to this, if members are disengaged, the behavior of one member will have...
A way of thinking about families that was seized on early in the development of family therapy was that of general systems theory. This theory, originally developed in the 1950s, is concerned with how parts are organized into wholes. Although it was not designed with families in mind, systems theory was found to fit in well with the thinking of many of the early family therapists. The idea that families are open systems has continued to be central to the work of virtually all family therapists. The task of the systems-based therapist thus becomes that of first determining how the family system is functioning, and then facilitating any changes that appear to be required in the way it functions. The systems-oriented therapist expects that once the needed changes in family functioning have been achieved, the symptoms of the member(s) who have been experiencing difficulties will be resolved, or at least ameliorated. What exactly are the basic principles of systems theory that family...
Many other theoretical concepts are used by family therapists. Therapy, whether or not it is addressed to the family system, may be looked on as a teaching and learning process. When we are treating families there is nearly always a need for the family to learn such things as new ways of relating to each other new approaches on the part of the parents to rearing their children new ways of allocating the tasks the family members must, between them, ensure are done perhaps a new type of marital relationship. While few family therapists would regard themselves simply as teachers, and family therapy is much more than telling people what they should do, learning must happen during the treatment if change is to occur. Learning is conceptualized to occur in several ways Family Therapy All of these learning processes may occur during family therapy. The therapist must devise ways of tapping into the potential all people have to learn new behaviors, concepts, and ways of viewing things. The...
In both popular and professional writing, many schools of therapy are distinguished by their concrete clinical procedures, the fund of therapeutic techniques most closely associated with particular traditions. Thus, psychoanalysis is characterized by its historical preference for free association and dream reporting on the part of the client, and the interpretation of transference and defense by the therapist. For its own part, cognitive therapy is linked with various methods for evaluating, monitoring and disputing dysfunctional thoughts or beliefs both in and between therapy sessions (e.g., homework assignments). Likewise, behavior therapy is associated with counterconditioning procedures (such as systematic desensitization), and contingency management (through the manipulation of reinforcement to increase or decrease desired or un-desired behavior). Even family therapy is associated with a distinctive set of procedures, ranging from the use of paradoxical interventions to the...
In general, then, passing through the adult part of the lifespan is no easy matter. From a child's or an adolescent's perspective, adulthood might seem to be a time of relative stability perhaps it is in comparison with the identity turmoil of adolescence. However, issues that surround establishing (or not) a long-term relationship, having children (or not), establishing and progressing through a career (or not), coping with bolts from the blue, such as redundancy or any other form of major loss, facing retirement, dealing with the death of partner or spouse, dealing with the inevitable declines of old age, and facing one's own eventual death, are none of them easy.
Stress has been shown to be an aggravating factor in MS but not a causal factor. More than 30 years ago, in conjunction with the McGill department of psychiatry in Montreal, we found that major life stress (such as death or serious illness in a child or other family member, marital discord, and loss of employment) was three to four times more common in MS patients than in medical patients who had been referred to psychiatrists for psychiatric consultation and care. Moreover, this stress was temporarily associated with relapses. We also found that major life stress was two to three times more common in the medical patients requiring psychiatric care than those not in need of psychiatric help.
Text in which the comparison is made, and the unique traits of both the individual and the comparison target have an impact on the outcome of the comparison process. As a result, social comparison may have a positive impact on well-being for particular individuals in certain situations, and a negative impact on well-being for other individuals in different situations. Research has demonstrated the relevance of social comparison to coping with a variety of stressors such as illness and marital problems.
The fourth set of approaches includes variants of systemic family therapy, which generally reflect a social constructionist concern with languaging and its role in shaping the family's definition of the problem. From this perspective, ''psychological disorders'' are not viewed as syndromes or symptoms that attach themselves to persons, but instead are defined in language through the interaction of those persons including the identified client engaged in the problem. For example, whether a woman's depressive withdrawal after the death of her stillborn child is considered ''normal'' or pathological is very much a matter for social negotiation, especially within the family context. Problems arise and are sustained in language when they are conferred a ''reality'' by individuals, family members, and the broader society, and particularly when they are attributed to deficiencies, deficits, or diseases in one individual. Therapy, in this perspective, consists of creatively helping...
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