Bacterial Interactions With Mucosal Surfaces

Whether it be in the lungs, the urinary bladder, or the intestine, the flourishing of bacteria depends upon their attachment to, and successful interac tions with, mucosal surfaces. The interactive processes in which various types of bacteria engage include attachment and effacement, translocation across epithelial or endothelial barriers either between cells pericellular route or through cells transcellular route , and invasion of host cells. Only in the last decade have these various events...

Antibiotic Resistance And Bacterial Variation

Resistance to antibiotics is increasing rapidly among human pathogens as pointed out by many authors e.g., refs. 65 and 66 . The reasons center around one problem the failure to control the human use of antibiotics. Numerous studies have shown that in medicine antibiotics are frequently prescribed unnecessarily or inappropriately. For example, it was estimated that in 1992, 12 million adults who presented bronchitis or upper respiratory infections received prescriptions for antibiotics that...

Theories Of Senescence

Numerous theories to explain senescence have been promulgated. Each of them offers some promise, at least, for understanding the heightened susceptibility of the older population to infections. Here, we briefly review the more substantive theories and later, consider more fully the theories most relevant to infections in the elderly. The theories in their various forms are presented below under four major subheadings. To date, the only known practical method of extending longevity of mammals is...

Agerelated Changes In Macrophages

When the field of immunogerontology was still quite young, it was generally concluded that MPs display no effects of senescence. Now that the field is older, more wisdom has accrued. MPs do, in fact, show signs of aging. The changes in MPs for which the evidence seems most compelling are a diminished ability to generate ROI upon stimulation b enhanced potential for producing NO upon stimulation c altered arachidonic acid metabolism associated, in particular, with elevated intracellular activity...