Axis II Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation

On Axis II are listed Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation. These disorders, by definition, are present for a substantial period of time (i.e., years). Although Axis I disorders may also be present for similar lengths of time, enduring symptoms are fundamentally part of these Axis II disorders. Also listed on Axis II are other traits or prominent features of a person's personality that a clinician deems maladaptive (e.g., frequent use of denial, excessive impulsivity). In addition to...

Maxie C Maultsby Jr and Rational Behavior Therapy RBT

While still a psychiatric resident, Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., studied briefly with Joseph Wolpe in 1967 and with Ellis for the following 7 years. At the 1975 Chicago National Conference of Rational Emotive and Behavior Therapists, Maultsby described his unique method of psychotherapy called Rational Behavior Therapy, or RBT. Then RBT was and probably still is the only method of psychotherapy that is based on the well-established facts about the mental activities of normal human brains that make...

Axis III General Medical Conditions

On Axis III are listed general medical conditions that may be relevant to the disorder s listed on Axes I and II. The presence of Axis III should not be taken to suggest a mind-brain dualism, with Axes I and II representing problems of the mind in the absence of a physiological basis. On the contrary, mental experience is rooted in the function of the brain. Axis III is included in the DSM to encourage a comprehensive evaluation and a consideration of the various ways in which a general medical...

Axis I Clinical Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention

Almost all mental disorders or conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention appear on Axis I, with a few exceptions that appear on Axis II. Axis I organizes mental disorders into 15 major groups of disorders, as presented in Table I. Most of the groups in Table I were created based on the similarity of symptoms of disorders within that group, although in some cases disorders are grouped together because of the typical age at which symptoms first appear (Disorders Usually First Diagnosed...

Cognitive Model Of Anxiety Disorders

Whereas the cognitive themes in depression are deprivation, defeat, and loss, the cognitive theme in anxiety disorders is danger. Following the continuity hypothesis, anxiety reactions are on a continuum with normal physiologic responses, but are exaggerated reactions to perceived threat. Cognitive therapy views anxiety from an evolutionary perspective, as originating in the flight, freeze, or fight responses apparent in animal behavior. These innate responses to physical danger became less...