Biofeedback

University of South Alabama

I. Introduction to Biofeedback

II. Theoretical Models of Biofeedback

III. The Biofeedback Laboratory

IV. Types of Biofeedback

V. Current Research Findings in Biofeedback

VI. Clinical Use of Biofeedback

VII. Opportunities in and Future of Biofeedback

Autonomic Nervous System The peripheral nervous system that includes neurons outside the bony enclosure of the spinal cord and skull; comprised of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympa-thetic nervous system.

Electroencephalograph Instrumentation that monitors brain waves.

Electromyograph Instrumentation that monitors muscle activity.

Operant Conditioning A behavioral principle that states when behavior is reinforced it will increase and when punished or not reinforced will decrease. Parasympathetic Nervous System Originates in the cranial and sacral regions of the spinal cord and plays a role in conserving energy and is often associated with a relaxed state.

Psychobiology A field of study that considers the interaction of psychological and biological variables in behavior and physical and mental health. Psychophysiological Disorders Physical disorders in which there are no evident physiological causes and etiological factors may be of a psychological nature. Examples are migraine headache and ulcers. Self-Regulation The process in which an individual regulates internal physiological responses, as well as emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses.

Stress Management Psychotherapy focused on helping people cope with stressful events more effectively and reduce anxiety, depression, and sympathetic nervous system responses. Sympathetic Nervous System Originates within the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and is associated with bodily responses that mobilize the organism and is referred to as the "flight or fight'' response.

BIOFEEDBACK is a methodology as well as a clinical tool that provides information about an individual's physiological functioning in relation to her cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. This article will present a psychobiological approach in discussing the development of biofeedback, theoretical models, types of biofeedback, current research status, and applications of biofeedback.

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