Appendices to the DSMIV

Included in the DSM-IV are 10 appendices. The appendices include a guide to facilitate differential diagnosis, a glossary, alphabetical and numerical listings of the diagnoses described in the manual, a summary of changes between the DSM-IV and the previous version of the DSM, comparisons of DSM-IV codes to the codes in two editions of the International Classification of Diseases, and a listing of contributors.

Worth special mention are two other appendices, Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study, and an Outline for Cultural Formulation and Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes. The first of these lists entries that were considered for inclusion in the DSM-IV, but were not included due to insufficient evidence. The disorders or axes are listed in the appendix to encourage research that will provide sufficient evi

DSM-IV

dence to include or exclude these entries from future editions of the DSM. The appendix encourages researchers to study refinements in these sets of criteria. Examples of entries in this appendix include Caffeine Withdrawal, alternative descriptions of Schizophrenia and other disorders related to Schizophrenia, other variants of depressive disorders, Premenstrual Dys-phoric Disorder, Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder, a series of Medication-Induced Movement Disorders, and Passive Aggressive Personality Disorder (which appeared as an Axis II disorder in the previous edition of the DSM). The proposed Axes include a scale to measure strategies for coping with emotional states, termed the Defensive Functioning Scale, and two scales modeled after Axis V to measure functioning in specific areas (relationships, and social/occupational).

The appendix covering cultural variations in the presentation of mental disorders provides information that might be of assistance in evaluating individuals from cultures other than one's own. One could mistakenly label as mental illness behaviors that appear abnormal from one's own culture, but that would not be regarded as aberrant by members of the culture from which the individual originates. For example, hearing voices is typically considered a psychotic symptom by members of the mental health community, although within some religious groups the experience is supported and interpreted as an experience that is to be heeded or revered. When diagnosing, one needs to take into account how such symptoms would be viewed by fellow members of an individual's culture, which may be include religious, ethnic, racial, and geographic influences.

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