Review Problems

1. According to Poiseuille's law, flow in a large artery is proportional to

(a) radius x viscosity

(b) radius4 x (pressure gradient)/viscosity

(c) radius4/(pressure gradient)

(d) radius2/viscosity

(e) viscosity/radius

2. According to the Reynolds number, turbulence is more likely with

(a) increasing viscosity

(b) decreasing tube diameter

(c) decreasing velocity

(d) increasing velocity

(e) increasing pressure

3. Decreased aortic compliance means

(a) decreased stiffness, resulting in increased resistance

(b) increased change in cross-sectional area for a given pressure increase

(c) increased stiffness, resulting in increased mean aortic pressure for the same cardiac output

(d) increased stiffness, resulting in a decrease in mean aortic pressure for same cardiac output

(e) decreased stiffness, resulting in a decrease in mean aortic pressure

4. Cardiac output is approximately proportional to

(a) aortic pressure divided by systemic vascular resistance

(b) systemic vascular resistance times aortic pressure

(c) systemic vascular resistance times right atrial pressure

(d) right ventricular pressure divided by systemic vascular resistance

(e) aortic pressure times stroke volume

5. If the heart were stopped, after due time, the pressure in the entire system circulation would come to equilibrium at some pressure greater than 0. This equilibrium pressure is known as

(a) mean aortic pressure

(b) diastolic pressure

(c) mean circulatory filling pressure

(d) vena cava pressure

(e) central venous pressure

6. For the following ECG, find the mean electrical axis.

Lead I

7. The QRS complex of the ECG is associated with

(a) atrial depolarization

(b) atrial repolarization

(c) bundle branch block

(d) ventricular repolarization

(e) ventricular depolarization

8. Find the mean electrical axis for the following ECG:

9. Excitation of the heart normally begins

(a) at the sinoatrial node

(b) at the atrioventricular node

(c) in the bundle of His

(e) in the left ventricular myocardium

(f) in the Purkinje system

10. The following ECG shows a patient with

(a) atrial flutter

(b) atrial tachycardia

(c) ventricular tachycardia

(d) right bundle branch block

(e) left bundle branch block

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