White matter white matter of the brain is largely made of myelin and gets its name because it has a lot of fat in it and looks whitish. Optic nerve the second cranial nerve which is actually an extension of the brain.
Cortex (cerebral cortex)
the layer of neurons covering the entire outside surface of the brain.
Gray matter the outermost layer of the brain made up of neurons. It completely covers the white matter.
Neuron nerve cell; the morphologic and functional unit of the nervous system. It consists of the nerve cell body, the dendrite, and the axon. Axon a nerve fiber arising from a neuron (nerve cell). Signals (messages) arising from one neuron are transmitted to another via the axon.
These spots of inflammation and scarring responsible for the hardening are often called plaques and are found in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. They are called plaques because they looked like little plates to Charcot, the French doctor who first found them more than a century ago. Plaque is the French word for plate. They may also occur in the optic nerve, which is actually part of the brain and not really a "nerve."
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