Species in situ

Captive breeding is only one dimension of species-focused conservation. Species have also been highly effective in providing the focus for in-situ conservation, for example to gather and direct support for a national park. The classic charismatic species in terms of habitat conservation in the 20th was probably the mountain gorilla. The importance of mountain gorillas to conservation in the past century was outlined briefly in Chapter 1. At different periods they have epitomized the challenges...

The Challenge of Nature

1 Not quite unnoticed see mountain_gorilla_frame.htm. 2 This event is described by George Schaller (1963) The Mountain Gorilla ecology and behavior, University of Chicago Press. Von Beringe's account of the expedition was published in Deutsches Kolonialblatt in 1903. The mountain gorilla was described by Matschie in 1903. 3 Jared Diamond (1991) Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee, Radius, London. 4 Lynn Merrill (1989) The Romance of Natural History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p117. 5...

Natures fortress

The fight against poachers and 'encroachers' in parks is a stock-in-trade of accounts of conservation in practice, whether in books by retired colonial Game Wardens, or the day to day stories of their successors today.56 While hunting has been very widespread in many regions, the focus of the 'poaching menace' has always been the protected area, first the colonial game reserves, later the National Park. Here nature is most precious, its perfection most vulnerable to destruction. Here too, to be...

Poachers to Partners

1 J S Adams and T O McShane (1992) The Myth of Wild Africa conservation without illusion, W W Norton and Co. 2 www.conservation.org. R A Mittermeir, C G Mittermeier, P R Gil, J Pilgrim, G Fonseca, T Brooks and W R Constant (2003) Wilderness Earth's last wild places, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. See also Eric W Sanderson, Malanding Jaiteth, Marc A Levy, Kent H Redford, Antoinette V Wannebo and Gillian Woolmer (2002) 'The Human footprint and the last of the wild', BioScience 52 891-904....

The poacher at home

Whether 'wild' nature needs to be managed or not, those committed to the conservation of nature in the 20th century have always found the presence of people in supposedly 'wild' places an enormous conceptual and practical challenge. Although local people engaged in traditional pursuits were initially tolerated, as they began to encroach on land set aside for nature in reserves and national parks (see Chapter 4), they began to be seen as unnatural, threatening the balance of nature. They hunted...

Conservations Plan

1 John Terborgh (1999) Requiem for Nature, Island Press, Washington DC, p170. 2 See for example Wayne L Linklater (2003) 'Science and management in a conservation crisis a case study with Rhinoceros', Conservation Biology 17 968 975. The model stages of crisis and response are population decline, crisis management, stabilization and recovery. Linklater argues that the distinction between pure and applied research is unhelpful. 3 For an example of such reflection, see Nick Salafsky, Richard...

Empire preservation

After the First World War, the SPWFE reformed, meeting in February 1919 at the House of Commons under the Chairmanship of their founder, E N Buxton. It dropped the word 'wild' from its title, becoming the Society for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire (SPFE), usually referred to as 'the Fauna Society'.18 It established an Executive Committee in 1920, separating the professional work of the society from its general meetings.19 When the Earl of Onslow took over as President in 1926, he...

Decolonization and conservation

International conservation concern was dominated, as it had been pre-war, by Africa. Africa, like so much of Asia, was now becoming independent, and new (and relatively inexperienced) governments were taking over. The process of political decolonization was sometimes remarkably abrupt. In retrospect it is the durability of conservation ideas and procedures that stands out.58 However in the 1950s and 1960s, conservationists feared the implications of independence for wildlife. The issue of...

Natures renewal

There is no shortage of agendas for action for conservation in the second Millennium. Edward Wilson, for example, calls for the salvage of the world's biodiversity hotspots, the maintenance of the world's remaining frontier forests intact, an end to all old-growth logging, a concentration on lakes and river ecosystems and on marine hotspots. He calls for a complete mapping of the world's living diversity, an investigation of ways to make conservation profitable, particularly for those who live...

Wildlife as a crop

The debate about what economists call 'consumptive use' (because once used the resource is not there for the next consumer) and biologists prefer to call extractive use (because once used the animal or plant is no longer present in the ecosystem) is lively, but it is by no means new.63 It was axiomatic to the first 20th century conservationists that a properly managed wildlife resource could yield a steady flow of income or other benefits such as meat. Their model for this was, of course the...

Trading Nature

1 R W G Hingston (1930) 'The Oxford University expedition to British Guiana', Geographical Journal 76 1-24 (p403). 2 Captain K Caldwell (1927) 'The commercialization of game', lecture delivered in Nairobi, August 1926, JournalSPFE 7 83-90 (p86). 3 A real case from 1986 in the event Colchester Zoo looked after them and the FPS arranged that they be sent back to a wildlife sanctuary in Ibiza. In 1986 also, the FPS tipped off the Department of the Environment to stop the sale of illegally imported...

Nature in Its Place

1 John Terborgh (1999) Requiem for Nature, Island Press, Washington DC. 2 Bernard and Michael Grzimek (1960) Serengeti Shall Not Die, Hamish Hamilton, London. On film, see the 1994 Imax Omnimax film Africa the Serengeti, directed by George Casey. 3 On research see A R E Sinclair and M Norton-Griffiths (eds) (1979) Serengeti Dynamics of an Ecosystem, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. On film, see the 1994 Imax Omnimax film Africa the Serengeti, directed by George Casey. 4 The human rights...

Wilderness and cultural imagination

The idea that places little transformed by cities, roads and other features of industrial and urban development are 'wilderness' is in fact commonplace in conservation thinking and writing, but it is nonetheless odd for that. It is in many ways a particularly American idea, although it is one that has spread and been adopted around the world. It underpinned the concept of the national park that was developed in the United States in the late 19th century, and which was such a powerful cultural...

Two by

2 Haldane's most famous book was The Causes of Evolution (1937). He became disillusioned with Soviet Communism following the rise of Stalin, and rejected the anti-Mendelian genetics of Trofim Lysenko. He died in 1964 (www.wikipedia.org). 6 J A Estes and J F Palmisano (1974) 'Sea otters their role in structuring nearshore communities', Science 185 1058-1060. 7 E J Milner-Gulland and Ruth Mace (1998) Conservation of Biological Resources, Blackwell, Oxford. R Norman Owen-Smith (1988)...

The Demands of Development

1 Morges Manifesto, signed by Jean Baer, Charles Bernard, Fran ois Bourli re, Wolfgang Burhenne, Ed Graham, Kai Curry-Lindahl, Eurgen Gerstenmeier, Julian Huxley, Max Nicholson, Erico Nicola, Peter Scott and Barton Worthington in 1961, prior to the establishment of the World Wildlife Fund. 2 An image of this kind can be viewed on-line at NASA's Earth Observatory website see A version of a similar image can be downloaded from 3 The Operational Linescan System. 4 See John Weier 2000 'Bright...

Natures image

The first step is in many ways the hardest, at least for many conservationists trained as biologists, and it is to accept that what we understand by nature is socially constructed. This has become a commonplace thought in the social sciences and humanities, but it is one that shocks and alarms many natural scientists, for it cuts deep into the ideas about truth, evidence and proof that they accept as essential foundations for scientific understanding. Take away the belief that science tells the...

Operation save the species

Campaigns to 'save' particular species were an important feature of conservation action on the ground in many instances after the Second World War, and within the fairly specific goals of species-based conservation, a successful one. The language of these various campaigns was characteristically militaristic these were 'operations', 'campaigns' or 'projects'. They had neat titles, and used the language of targets, goals and logistics. In part this reflected the public respect in the United...

The conservation estate

The establishment of the IUCN created a new forum for the promotion of national parks across the globe. At the Athens General Assembly in 1958, a Provisional Committee on National Parks was established under Hal Coolidge , with eight of its eleven members from the Third World five from Africa, three from Asia .193 This grew into the IUCN Commission on National Parks in 1960 now the World Commission on Protected Areas194 . In 1959, the 27th Session of the UN Economic and Social Council held in...

Decolonization and national parks

When the Second World War was over, the idea of national parks was resurrected, and took root with vigour. By then, the principle of national parks had been accepted in Britain, and at that time too, all things American were the height of fashion. There was a remarkable renaissance of interest in national parks internationally. In Canada there for example, the National Parks Act was passed in 1930, and new parks were created in Nova Scotia 1936 , Prince Edward Island 1937 , Fundy 1948 and Terra...

Foreword

Earl of Cranbrook, President, Fauna amp Flora International The United Kingdom, to its detriment, has lacked a Teddy Roosevelt. Among our 20th century Prime Ministers, none has shown himself or herself to be a 'conservationist' in Bill Adams' sense of holding a passion for living things, based on personal engagement, and a desire to solve the self-evident crisis in nature and wildlife management. Indeed, as Lord Bellwin remarked at Second Reading Hansard, 16 December 1980, col 983 , until the...

Sustainable development

The UNSCCUR meeting at Lake Success in 1949, described in Chapter 3, was a critical landmark in the rise of broad international environmental concern.106 It offered a view of conservation that concerned the long-term management of natural resources in a wider sense than simply wildlife. This reflected the US experience of conservation as 'wise use' of resources, part of public life since the progressive conservation movement associated with Gifford Pinchot at the turn of the century. Within...

The Global Conservation Regime

1 Barbara Ward and Ren Dubos 1972 Only One Earth the care and maintenance of a small planet, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth. 2 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity 2001 Global Biodiversity Outlook, Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. The USA did not sign the Convention. 4 C W Hobley 1924 'The protection of wild life', paper to the Museums Association 14 July 1924, Journal SPFE 4 26-34 p26 . 5 General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 15 October 1928, Journal SPFE 1929 5-12 p6 ....