Good Hunting

1 H Seton-Karr (1908) 'The preservation of big game', Journal SPWFE, 4: 26-28 (p26).

2 Jonathan Kingdon (1997) The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals, Academic Press, London. The South African Museum in Cape Town is leading an attempt to selectively breed plains zebras to create animals that resemble the quagga in appearance (and possibly genetically). See: www.museums.org.za/ sam/quagga/quagga.htm

3 www.museums.org.za/sam/quagga/tring.htm. See Miriam Rothschild (1983) Dear Lord Rothschild: birds, butterflies and history, London, Hutchinson.

4 The last record of capture was 1662. The dodo made poor eating, and its demise was probably due to introduced pigs, although cats, dogs, horses, goats, mongoose and crab-eating macaques cannot have helped, see Anton Gill and Alex West (2001) Extinct, Channel 4 Books, London; Graeme Caughley and Anne Gunn (1996) Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice, Blackwell Oxford.

5 Gill and West (2001). On the dodo, see www.internationaldove society.com/Misc%20Species/Dodo.htm. On the solitaire, see: www.internationaldovesociety.com/Misc%20Species/Reunion%20Solitaire.htm. On Steller's sea cow see: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/ hydrodamalis/h._gigas$narrative.html. On the great auk, see: www.birds ofna.org/excerpts/auk.html. On the passenger pigeon, see Clive Ponting (1992) A Green History of the World, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, and the Passenger Pigeon Society, www.passengerpigeon.org.

6 S H Whitbread (1907) 'The Year', Journal SPWFE 3:10-13 (p12).

7 This period is well described by John MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature: hunting, conservation and British imperialism, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

8 MacKenzie (1988, p92).

9 W Beinart and P Coates (1995) Environment and History: the taming of nature in the USA and South Africa, Routledge, London.

10 John MacKenzie describes the social cachet of hunting in Victorian society, and the importance of hunting trophies.

11 W C Harris, Sir (1839) The Wild Sports of Southern Africa: being the narrative of an expedition from the Cape of Good Hope, through the territories of the Chief Moselekatse, to the Tropic of Capricorn, J Murray, London; R G G Cumming, (1850) Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South Africa: with notices of the native tribes, and anecdotes of the chase of the lion, elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, rhinoceros, &c., J Murray, London.

12 W C Baldwin (1863) African Huntingg, from Natal to the Zambesi: including Lake Ngami, the Kalahari Desert, &c. from 1852 to 1860, R Bentley, London.

13 MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature; A M Whitehouse and G I H Kerley (2002) 'Retrospective assessment of long-term conservation mangement of elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa', Oryx 36: 243-248.

14 H A Bryden (1893) Gun and Camera in Southern Africa, London.

15 Kingdon (1997) The Kingdon Guide to African Mammals. The Cape mountain zebra is Equus zebra.

16 John M MacKenzie (1997) 'Empire and the ecological apocalypse: the historiography of the imperial environment', in T Griffiths and L Robin (eds) Ecology and Empire: environmental history of settler societies, Keele University Press, Keele, pp215-228.

17 The ecological impact of empire is well argued by A W Crosby (1986) Ecological Imperialism: the ecological expansion of Europe 1600—1900, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. The clearance of forests in the USA is analysed in detail by Michael Williams (1989) Americans and their Forests: a historical geography, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

18 T R Dunlap (1997) 'Ecology and environmentalism in the Anglo settler colonies', in Griffiths and Robin (eds) Ecology and Empire, pp76—86. See also Tim Flannery (1994) The Future Eaters: an ecological history of the Australasian lands and people, Reed Books Australia, Sydney (New Holland Edition, Sydney, 1997), and W Beinart, and P Coates, (1995) Environment and History.

19 See especially the work of Richard Grove, for example R H Grove (1992) 'Origins of western environmentalism', Scientific American, 267: 42—47; R H Grove, (1995) Green Imperialism: colonial expansion, tropical island Edens and the origins of environmentalism, 1600—1800, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; R H Grove (1997) 'Conserving Eden: the (European) East India Companies and their environmental policies on St Helena, Mauritius and in Western India, 1660-1854', in R H Grove Ecology, Climate and Empire; colonialism and global environmental history 1400—1940, White Horse Press, Knapwell, pp37-85; R H Grove (1998) 'The East India Company, the Raj and the El Niño: the critical role played by colonial scientists in establishing the mechanisms of global climate teleconnections 1770-1930', in R H Grove, V Damodaran and S Sangwan (eds) Nature and the Orient: the environmental history of South and Southeast Asia, Oxford University Press, Delhi, pp301-323.

20 Gregory R Barton (2002) Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p29. See also R Rajan (1998) 'Imperial environmentalism or environmental imperialism? European forestry, colonial foresters and the agendas of forest management in British India 1800-1900, in Grove, Damodaran and Sangwan (1998) (eds) Nature and the Orient,, pp324-371.

21 Barton (2002). The title of this chapter is of course taken from Kipling's story in The Jungle Book 'Kaa's Hunting'.

22 R H Grove (1987) 'Early themes in African conservation: the Cape in the Nineteenth Century', in D M Anderson and R H Grove (eds) Conservation in Africa: people, policies and practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp21-40.

23 MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature.

24 R Nash, (1973) Wilderness and the American Mind, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

25 Richard S R Fitter and Peter Scott (1978) The Penitent Butchers: the Fauna Preservation Society 1903—1978, Collins, London.

26 R Boardman (1981) International Organisations and the Conservation of Nature, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, p28.

27 John MacKenzie reports that the number of pianos being built in the USA rose from 20,000 per year in 1850 to 370,00 in 1910.

28 MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature.

29 R Pankhurst and D H Johnson (1988) 'The great drought and famine of 1888-92 in Northeast Africa', in D Johnson and D Anderson, (eds) The Ecology of Survival, Lester Crook, London, pp47-70; R T Waller (1988) Emutai: crisis and response in Maasailand 1883-1902', in Johnson and Anderson The Ecology of Survival, pp72-112.

30 A R E Sinclair, and M Norton-Griffiths, (1979) (eds) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

31 MacKenzie (1998) The Empire of Nature, p134.

32 Saturday Review 24 November 1906 'The dying fauna of an empire', reprinted in Journal SPWFE 3: 75-77

33 E N Buxton, (1902) Two African Trips: with notes and suggestions on big game preservation, London, E Stanford, p11. The text of the Convention is in Journal SPWFE 1903.

34 MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature, p208.

35 Graeme Caughley and Anne Gunn (1996) Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice, Blackwell, Oxford.

36 Popular environmentalist angst about extinction has been enhanced by ideas of North American Pleistocene 'overkill', which researchers now widely reject, see Donald Grayson and David J Meltzer (2003) 'A requiem for North American overkill', Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 1-9.

37 Gill and West (2001). On the thylacine's web presence, see for example www.naturalworlds.org/thylacine/. On attempts to clone the thylacine see for example www.irysec.vic.edu.au/sci/goneill/thylacine.htm.

38 The evolution of that symbol of conservation is shown at www.wwf.org.uk/ core/about/whoweare.asp.

39 Gerald Durrell (1960) A Zoo in my Luggage, Rupert Hart-Davis, London, p10.

40 E O Wilson and F M Peter et al (1988) Biodiversity, National Academy Press, Washington.

41 Wilson and Peter (1988, pvi).

42 Edward O Wilson (1992) The Diversity of Life, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

43 www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp

44 Myers, N (1988) 'Tropical forests and their species: going, going ...?' in Wilson and Peter, Biodiversity, pp28-35.

45 Wilson (1992) The Diversity of Life, p327; Richard Leakey and Richard Lewin (1995) The Sixth Extinction, Doubleday, New York.

46 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2001) Global Biodiversity Outlook, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal.

47 Fraser D M Smith, Robert M May, Robin Pellew, Timothy H Johnson, Kerry S Walter (1993) 'Estimating extinction rates', Nature 364 (5 August): 494-496.

48 Extinct, extinct in the wild, critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable, lower risk, data deficient and not evaluated.

49 Stuart L Pimm, Gareth Russell, John L Gittleman and Thomas M Brooks (1995) 'The future of biodiversity', Science 269 (21 July): 347-350.

50 For those with a literal mind, Bjorn Lomborg's (2001) The Sceptical Environmentalist, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, is a mine of fascinating details.

51 Wilson (1992) The Diversity of Life, p327.

53 Journal SPFE (1924).

54 E N Buxton (1898) Short Stalks: comprising trips in Somaliland, Siani, the eastern desert of Egypt, and Crete, the Carpathian Mountains, and Daghestan, [Second series] E Stanford, London; E N Buxton (1902) Two African Trips.

57 John Sheail (1976) Nature in Trust: the history of nature conservation in Britain, Blackie, Glasgow.

58 For the origins of conservation in the UK, see David E Allen (1976) The Naturalist in Britain, Penguin, Harmondsworth, and John Sheail (1976).

59 W Addison (1991) Epping Forest: Figures in a landscape, Robert Hale, London.

60 See E N Buxton, (1923) Epping Forest, E Stanford, London. On his deathbed, Buxton purchased Hatfield Forest in Essex for the National Trust, 'The Late Mr E N Buxton', Journal SPFE, 4: 23-24 (1924).

61 JournalSPWFE (1905), 2.

62 H Seton-Karr (1908) 'The Preservation of Big Game', Journal SPWFE, 4: 26-28 (p26)

63 Buxton (1902) Two African Trips.

65 Buxton (1902, p128)

66 For details see MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature, p223.

68 Whitbread (1907, p10).

69 See Mark Toogood (2003) 'Decolonizing Highland Conservation', in William Adams and Martin Mulligan (eds) Decolonizing Nature: strategies for conservation in a post-colonial era, Earthscan, London, pp152-171.

70 For Quatermain see H Rider Haggard (1886) King Solomon's Mines, London; for Peter Piennar see John Buchan (1919) Mr. Standfast, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

71 MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature, p134.

72 M S S Pandian (1998) 'Hunting and colonialism in the nineteenth-century Nilgiri Hills of South India, in R H Grove, V Damodaran and S Sangwan

(eds) Nature and the Orient: the environmental history of South and Southeast Asia, Oxford University Press, Delhi, pp273-297.

73 Pandian (1998).

74 In 1890 the US Census Bureau announced that there was no longer a contiguous frontier line in the west. In 1893, Frederick Jackson Turner articulated the idea that the frontier was fundamental to the development of the USA, at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, marking the 400th anniversary of the voyage of Columbus, see Frederick Jackson Turner (1920) The Frontier in American History, Henry Holt, New York (and Dover Publications, London, 1996).

Karl Jacoby (2001) Crimes Against Nature: squatters, poachers, thieves and the hidden history of American conservation, University of California Press, Berkeley, p58. H Paul Jeffers (2003) Roosevelt the Explorer: Teddy Roosevelt's amazing adventures as a naturalist, conservationist, and explorer, Taylor Trade Publishing, Lanham NewYork.

Quoted in Paul Jeffers (2003, p46).

See Jeffers (2003); the Boone and Crockett Club's lobbying eventually led to passage of the Park Protection Act of 1894.

Donald Goddard (1995) 'A great campaign of conservation' in Donald Goddard (ed) Saving Wildlife: a century of conservation, Harry N Abrams with the Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, pp42-46.

William T Hornaday (1887) 'The passing of the buffalo' from The Cosmopolitan, October 1887 in Goddard (ed) (1995) Saving Wildlife, pp47-50. Paul Jeffers (2003) Roosevelt the Explorer, p70.

William T Hornaday (1921) 'Post-war game conditions in America', Journal

Buxton (1902) Two African Trips, p115.

SPWFE (1907) 'The Dying Fauna of an Empire', Journal SPWFE, 3: 75-77, p76; Saturday Review 24 Nov 1906.

This phrase was taken as the title of the history of the Fauna Preservation Society written in 1978 by Richard Fitter and Peter Scott, Penitent Butchers: 75 years of wildlife conservation, Collins, London.

H Seton-Karr (1908) 'The preservation of big game', Journal SPWFE, 4: 26-28 (pp26, 26-27).

Buxton (1902) Two African Trips, p121. Gamekeepers hang the carcasses of vermin on a gibbet. Buxton (1902, pp115, 116).

Major Stevenson-Hamilton (1907) 'Opposition to game reserves', Journal SPWFE (1907): 53-9 (p54).

Minutes of proceedings at a deputation from the SPWFE to the Right Hon Alfred Lyttelton (His Majesty's Secretary for the Colonies), 2 February 1905, Journal SPWFE (1905) (2): 9-18 (p12).

Lord Hindlip (1905) 'Preservation of the fauna of British East Africa from the point of view of a settler', Journal SPWFE, 2: 51-57 (p51). 'Preservation of Game', Extract from Lord Cromer's Report for Egypt and the Sudan for the year 1902, Item 11, Journal SPWFE 3: 61-67 (p65). Stevenson-Hamilton (1907) 'Opposition to game reserves', (p53). Lord Hindlip (1905) 'Preservation of the fauna of British East Africa from the point of view of a settler', Journal SPWFE, 2: 51-57 (pp51, 52). Lord Hindlip (1905, p52).

Lord Hindlip (1905). Grogan is famous for driving from the Cape to Cairo. Among other things, Lord Delamere shot lions with live donkeys as bait, and established the Masara pack of foxhounds in Kenya, see C McKenzie (2000) 'The British Big-Game Hunting Tradition: Masculinity and fraternalism with particular reference to "the Shikar Club"'. The Sports Historian, 20(1): 70-96. Seton-Karr (1908) 'The preservation of big game', p27.

Extract from Sir Charles Eliot's reports on the British East Africa Protectorate for the years 1902 and 1903, Journal SPWFE (1903) 1(7): 49-54 (p50).

The Editor (1909) 'Introduction', Journal SPWFE (1909).

Sir J Hayes Sadler to Earl of Crewe 3 October 1908, Journal SPWFE 4: 37-48

'Export of Game Hides — Crops destroyed by game', Colonists' Association (East African Standard 14 August 1909) Journal SPWFE 5: p28-29. The motion was seconded by Mr Tarlton, who had guided President Roosevelt on his safari.

Extract from letter 28 August 1909, Journal SPWFE 5: 29.

Lord Hindlip (1905) Journal SPWFE 2: 51-57 (p52).

Stevenson-Hamilton (1907) 'Opposition to game reserves', p54.

C W Hobley (1924) 'The protection of wild life', Paper to the Museums

Association 14 July 1924, Journal SPFE 4: 26-34 (p29).

Lord Hindlip (1905, p52).

'Extract from a letter from a correspondent in East Africa', Journal SPWFE

Lord Hindlip (1905).

Hayes Sadler (1908, p41).

Minutes of proceedings at a deputation from the SPFE received by the Right Hon the Earl of Crewe K G (Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies), 26 February 1909 Journal SPWFE 1909 (4): 11-27 (p19). Buxton (1902) Two African Trips, p117.

E N Buxton, (1908) Minutes of a meeting of the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire held in the House of Commons on 21 July 1908. Unpublished.

McKenzie (2000). Shikar-Safari Club International was founded in 1952. The Club membership is limited to 200 (see www.conservationforum.org/ nwcp/partners/.) A book of hunting reminiscences was published in a limited edition in 2002 (Phillips, (2002) A Hunting Heritage: fifty years of Shikar-Safari Club, Safari Press, Ohio. I have not seen this book.

W T Hornaday's Letter and Fifteen Cardinal Principles, SPWFE Journal 5: 56-8, (p57).

Minutes of meeting SPFE 17 February 1928, Journal SPWFE 7: 20-27. General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 15 October 1928, Journal SPFE 9:5-12 (p12).

Meeting SPFE 27 January 1936, Journal SPFE 28: 7-8. The proposal was bounced to the Executive Committee on 25 May, which recommended a more measured approach.

C W Hobley (1938) The conservation of wild life: retrospect and prospect, Part II', SPFE Journal 33: 39-49, (p47). Hobley (1938, p43).

Jeffers (2003) Roosevelt the Explorer, see Samuel P Hays (1959) Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: the progressive conservation movement 1890-1920, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Whitbread (1907) 'The Year', p11. Buxton (1902) Two African Trips, pp117, 116.

SPWFE (1907) Minutes of proceedings at a deputation of the SPWFE to the Right Hon the Earl of Elgin, His Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies. Journal SPWFE, III: 20-32. 'The Year', Journal SPWFE (1905) 2: 5-8 (p7).

Minutes of proceedings at a deputation from the SPWFE to the Right Hon Alfred Lyttelton (His Majesty's Secretary for the Colonies), February 2 1905, Journal SPWFE (2): 9-18 (p10).

Rhys Williams to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 9 June 1906, Journal SPWFE, 14-19 (p15).

Minutes of proceedings, Journal SPWFE 2: 9-18 (p13). Minutes of proceedings, Journal SPWFE 2: 9-18 (p14).

Minutes of proceedings at a deputation from the Society for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire received by the Right Hon the Earl of Crewe KG (Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies), 26 February 1909, Journal SPWFE 4: 11-27 ¿14).

Seton-Karr (1908) 'The preservation of big game'.

Saturday Review November 24 1906, reprinted as 'The Dying Fauna of an

SPWFE (1908) 'Editorial note', Journal SPWFE 4: 9-10 (p9).

John Henry Patterson (1907) The Man-eaters of Tsavo and other East African

Adventures, Macmillan, London. The incident was the subject of a film starring

Val Kilmer called The Ghost and the Darkness (1996). J H Patterson's later adventures are widely held to be the inspiration for Ernest Hemingway's story of adultery and murder on a Kenyan safari in The Short Happy Life of Francis

Macomber (1936).

See Jeffers (2003) Roosevelt the Explorer, p191. Compiled as African Game Trails in 1910.

They shot 512 head of big game, MacKenzie (1988) The Empire of Nature, p162.

This section draws extensively on Kenneth M Cameron (1990) Into Africa: the story of the East African Safari, Constable, London.

Cameron (1990) John MacKenzie has a fine photo of the Duke and Duchess of York with a shot black rhinoceros, The Empire of Nature (1988) p295. General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 4 November 1929, JournalSPFE (1930) 10: 5-10.

General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 15 April 1929, Journal SPFE (1929) 9: 23-29 (p27).

General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 3 March 1930, Journal SPFE (1930) 10: 5-11 (p9).

Deputation to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 5 March 1930, Journal SPFE (1930) 11: 11-16 (p12).

General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 10 December 1928, Journal SPFE (1929) 9: 12-14.

Onslow to AGM SPFE 7 March 1932, Journal SPFE 16: 5-12.

General Meeting SPFE London Zoo, 3 March 1930, Journal SPFE (1930) 10:

149 Markham, B (1942) West With the Night, republished Penguin Books, Hemel Hempstead, 1988.

150 'The King and Queen in East Africa', Journal SPFE 31 (1937): 7-10.

151 Both stories were first published in 1936, and collected in 1938 in The Fifth Column and The First Forty-Nine Stories. 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro' was made into a film in 1952 starring Gregory Peck and Ava Gardner.

152 'The Year', Journal SPWFE 2: pp5-8 (p8). See K G Schilling (1922) Mit Blitzlight und Büsche im Zauber des Elelescho, Voigtlander, Leipsig.

153 See for example S Metcalfe (1994) 'The Zimbabwe Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE)', in D Western, R M White and S C Strum (eds) Natural Connections: perspectives in community-based conservation, Island Press, Washington, pp161-192; David Hulme and Marshall Murphree (eds) (2001) African Wildlife and Livelihoods: the promise and performance of community conservation, James Currey, Oxford.

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