Figure

The Human Brain (A) The cerebral cortex of the nearly symmetrical hemispheres of the brain is divided into four lobes. The cerebral cortex is a thin sheet of nerve tissue that is folded many times to fit inside the skull, as shown in the sectional view. (B) Your right fist can serve as a guide to the orientation of the brain's left hemispheres and lobes.

Sectional view

Lobes define broad divisions of the cerebral cortex.

The brain is made up of two hemispheres, left and right.

Bumps in the brain's folded surface are called gyri, and cracks are called sulci.

Cerebral cortex is the brain's thin outer "bark" layer.

Lobes define broad divisions of the cerebral cortex.

The brain is made up of two hemispheres, left and right.

Bumps in the brain's folded surface are called gyri, and cracks are called sulci.

Cerebral cortex is the brain's thin outer "bark" layer.

Right Parietal Lobe

Your right hand, if made into a fist, represents the positions of the lobes of the left hemisphere of your brain.

Frontal lobe (fingers)

Parietal lobe (knuckles)

Occipital lobe (wrist)

Parietal lobe (knuckles)

Occipital lobe (wrist)

Frontal lobe (fingers)

Parietal Lobe
Temporal lobe (thumb)

C H APTER 1

Temporal lobe. Cortex lying below the lateral fissure, beneath the temporal bone at the side of the skull.

Frontal lobe. Cerebral cortex anterior to the central sulcus and beneath the frontal bone of the skull.

Parietal lobe. Cerebral cortex posterior to the central sulcus and beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull.

Occipital lobe. Cerebral cortex at the back of the brain and beneath the occipital bone.

Neuron. A brain cell engaged in information processing.

Spinal cord. Part of the central nervous system encased within the vertebrae or spinal column.

Central nervous system (CNS). The brain and spinal cord.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS). All the neurons in the body located outside the brain and spinal cord.

Sensory neuron. Neuron that carries incoming information from sensory receptors into the spinal cord and brain.

Motor neuron. Neuron that carries information from the spinal cord and brain to make muscles contract.

O Use the Foundations CD to look at how these nerve net works work in our brains. The overview of the brain in the central nervous system module includes a rotatable, three-dimensional view of the brain that will help you visualize how all these parts fit together.

The forward-pointing temporal lobe is located at the side of the brain, approximately the same place as the thumb on your upraised fist. Immediately above your thumbnail, your fingers correspond to the location of the frontal lobe, so called because it is located at the front of the brain, beneath the frontal bone of the skull. The parietal lobe is located beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull, behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe. The area at the back of each hemisphere beneath the occipital bone constitutes the occipital lobe.

Harvey clearly wanted to preserve not just his brain but his self—his consciousness, his thoughts, his intelligence. This meaning of the term brain refers to something other than the organ found inside the skull. It refers to the brain as that which exerts control over behavior.

This meaning of brain is what we intend when we talk of someone being "the brain" or when we speak of the computer that guides a spacecraft as being the vessel's "brain." The term brain, then, signifies both the organ itself and the fact that this organ controls behavior. Why could Harvey not manage to preserve his control-exerting self inside a bottle? Read on to learn one answer to this question.

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