Sir William Osler stated, "There is no more difficult task in medicine than the art of observation." The late Arnold Jack Rudolph was an internationally renowned neonatolo-gist, a teacher's teacher, and, above all, one who constantly reminded us about how much could be learned by simply observing, in his case, the newborn infant.

This color atlas of neonatology represents a distillation of more than 50 years of observing normal and abnormal newborn infants. The Atlas begins with a section on the placenta, its membranes, and the umbilical cord. Jack Rudolph delighted in giving a lecture entitled "Don't Make Mirth of the Afterbirth," in which he captivated audiences by showing them how much you could learn about the newborn infant from simply observing the placenta, its membranes, and the umbilical cord.

In a few more than 60 photomicrographs, we learn to read the placenta and gain insight into such disorders as intrauterine growth retardation, omphalitis, cytomegalic inclusion disease, congenital syphilis, and congenital neuroblastoma. Congenital abnormalities of every organ system are depicted along with the appearance of newborn infants who have been subjected in utero to a variety of different drugs, toxins, or chemicals. We also learn to appreciate the manifestations of birth trauma and abnormalities caused by abnormal intrauterine positioning.

More than 250 photographs are used to illustrate the field of neonatal dermatology. The collection of photographs used in this section is superior to that which I have seen in any other textbook or atlas of neonatology or dermatology; this section alone makes this reference a required addition to the library of any clinician interested in the care of infants and children. Photographs of the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (cavernous hemangioma with thrombocytopenia), Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, Turner's syndrome, Waardenburg's syndrome, neurocutaneous melanosis, mas-tocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa), and incon tinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) are among the best that I have seen.

Cutaneous manifestations are associated with many perinatal infections. The varied manifestations of staphylococcal infection of the newborn are depicted vividly in photomicrographs of furunculosis, pyoderma, bullous impetigo, abscesses, parotitis, dacryocystitis, inastitis, cellulitis, omphalitis, and funisitis. Streptococcal cellulitis, Haemophilus influenzae cellulitis, and cutaneous manifestations of listeriosis all are depicted. There are numerous photomicrographs of congenital syphilis, showing the typical peripheral desquamative rash on the palms and soles, as well as other potential skin manifestations of congenital syphilis which may produce either vesicular, bullous, or ulcerative lesions. The various radiologic manifestations of congenital syphilis, including pneumonia alba, ascites, growth arrest lines, Wegner's sign, periostitis, and syphilitic osteochondritis, are depicted. Periostitis of the clavicle (Higoumenaki's sign) is shown in a photograph that also depicts periostitis of the ribs. A beautiful photomicrograph of Wimberger's sign also has been included; this sign, which may appear in an infant with congenital syphilis, reveals radiolucency due to erosion of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial metaphysis.

The Atlas also includes a beautiful set of photographs which delineate the ophthalmo-logic examination of the newborn. Lesions which may result from trauma, infection, or congenital abnormalities are included. There are numerous photographs of the ocular manifestations of a variety of systemic diseases, such as Tay-Sachs disease, tuberous sclerosis, tyrosinase deficiency, and many more. Photographs of disturbances of each of the various organ systems, or disorders affecting such organ systems, also are included along with numerous photographs of different forms of dwarfism, nonchromosomal syndromes and associations, and chromosomal disorders. In short, this Atlas is the complete visual textbook of neonatology and will provide any physician, nurse, or student with a distillation of 50 years of neonatal experience as viewed through the eyes of a master clinician.

Arnold Jack Rudolph was born in 1918, grew up in South Africa, and graduated from the Witwatersrand Medical School in 1940. Following residency training in pediatrics at the Transvaal Memorial Hospital for Children, he entered private pediatric practice in Johannesburg, South Africa. After almost a decade, he left South Africa and moved to Boston, where he served as a Senior Assistant Resident in Medicine at the Children's Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, and subsequently pursued fellowship training in neonatology at the same institution and at the Boston Lying-In Hospital, Children's Medical Center and Harvard Medical School under Dr. Clement A. Smith.

In 1961, Dr. Rudolph came to Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, the school at which he spent the remainder of his career. He was a master teacher, who received the outstanding teacher award from pediatric medical students on so many occasions that he was elected to the Outstanding Faculty Hall of Fame in 1982. Dr. Rudolph also received numerous awards over the years from the pediatric house staffs for his superb teaching skills.

He was the Director of the Newborn Section in the Department of Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine for many years, until he voluntarily relinquished that position in 1986 for reasons related to his health.

Nevertheless, Jack Rudolph continued to work extraordinarily long hours in the care of the newborn infant, and was at the bedside teaching both students and house staff, as well as his colleagues, on a daily basis until just a few months before his death in July 1995.

Although Dr. Rudolph was the author or co-author of more than 100 published papers that appeared in the peer-reviewed medical literature, his most lasting contribution to neonatology and to pediatrics is in the legacy of the numerous medical students, house staff, fellows, and other colleagues whom he taught incessantly about how much one could learn from simply observing the newborn infant. This Atlas is a tour de force; it is a spectacular teaching tool that has been developed, collated, and presented by one of the finest clinical neonatologists in the history of medicine. It is an intensely personal volume that, as Dr. Rudolph himself states, "is not intended to rival standard neonatology texts," but rather to supplement them. This statement reveals Dr. Rudolph's innate modesty, since with the exception of some discussion on pathogenesis and treatment, it surpasses most neonatology texts in the wealth of clinical information that one can derive from viewing and imbibing its contents. We owe Dr. Rudolph and those who aided him in this work a debt of gratitude for making available to the medical community an unparalleled visual reference on the normal and abnormal newborn infant.

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