Caudal Regression Syndrome

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Figure 1.13. Radiograph of the lower extremities of the same infant. Note the abnormal development of the pelvis due to the lumbosacral agenesis, the thin, poorly developed bones and lack of muscle mass. This is due to lack of fetal movement and resulting arthrogryposis.

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Caudal Regression Syndrome

Figure 1.14. An asymmetric form of the caudal regression syndrome and hypoplastic left lower extremity associated with hypopla-sia of muscles and sciatic nerve on the left side.

Figure 1.14. An asymmetric form of the caudal regression syndrome and hypoplastic left lower extremity associated with hypopla-sia of muscles and sciatic nerve on the left side.

Caudal Regression Syndrome
Figure 1.15. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the same infant. Note the hemicaudal dysplasia. Also note the bilateral pulmonary hypoplasia.

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Sacral Agenesis

Figure 1.17. Anteroposterior and lateral radiograph of an infant with sacral agenesis, born to a diabetic mother. This is one of the classic abnormalities reported in infants of diabetic mothers.

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Figure 1.17. Anteroposterior and lateral radiograph of an infant with sacral agenesis, born to a diabetic mother. This is one of the classic abnormalities reported in infants of diabetic mothers.

Figure 1.16. Close-up radiograph of the pelvis and lower extremities in the same infant. There are lumbar and sacral hemivertebrae with left scoliosis and vertebral fusion, hypoplasia of left pelvic bones, dislocation of the left hip, and a hypoplas-tic left lower extremity.

Figure 1.18. Sirenomelia ("mermaid" fetus) in an infant of a diabetic mother shows the severe postural deformities associated with the oligohydramnios which is always present in infants with sirenomelia because of renal agenesis. These infants typically lack an anus and have abnormal genitalia. Note the Potter facies, low-set ears, epicanthal folds and micrognathia associated with oligohydramnios and renal agenesis.

Abnormal Facies With Epicanthal Folds

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Caudal Regression Syndrome
Figure 1.19. The same infant as in Fig. 1.18 placed in its position-of-comfort in utero. Note that the fused lower extremities give the typical appearance of a mermaid.

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Figure 1.21.

Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the same infant show the marked scoliosis, die abnormal pelvis and die fused femora.

Lateral Epicanthal Folds

Figure 1.22. Radiograph of the same infant showing the fused femora, separate tibiae and abnormal development of the foot.

Figure 1.22. Radiograph of the same infant showing the fused femora, separate tibiae and abnormal development of the foot.

Caudal Regression Syndrome

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Figure 1.23. This infant of a diabetic mother exhibits sirenomelia with total lack of development of die genitalia and an imperforate anus. Associated with the renal agenesis is oligohydramnios; this infant also demonstrates the typical Potter facies. Note the low-set ear, flat nose and micrognathia.

Figure 1.24. Sirenomelia in another infant of a diabetic mother; the infant had severe oligohydramnios associated with renal agenesis. There were no external genitalia and anal atresia was present, but note that this infant had a "tail" present.

Figure 1.23. This infant of a diabetic mother exhibits sirenomelia with total lack of development of die genitalia and an imperforate anus. Associated with the renal agenesis is oligohydramnios; this infant also demonstrates the typical Potter facies. Note the low-set ear, flat nose and micrognathia.

Facies Potter

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Potter Facies

Figure 1.25. A close-up of the face of the same infant with the typical Potter facies associated with oligohydramnios and renal agenesis. Note the low-set abnormal ears, the flat nose, and micrognathia. Epicanthal folds were also present.

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