Distended Veins In Scalp

Figure 3.6. Extreme hypotonia in a term infant who appears to slip through die hands of her examiner when held upright under the arms. Most term newborns can maintain the head in the same plane as the trunk when lifted by the arms or ventrally suspended. Extreme head lag is a sign of hypotonia that can be seen in infants with Down syndrome, prematurity, or brain damage.

Acquired Prader Willi Syndrome Hypotonia Scalp Veins Infant Pictures

Figure 3.7. Microcephaly in a term infant with congenital rubella. Microcephaly may be idiopathic or acquired as a result of intracranial pathology. It may also result from serious perinatal brain injury in which case the FOC (fronto-occipital circumference) may be normal at birth, but then fail to increase as the brain fails to grow after birth. Severe physical and mental retardation may follow. This infant had an FOC of 30 cm and closed fontanelles.

Fetal Aminopterin Syndrome

Figure 3.8. Lateral view of the same infant with microcephaly. Microcephaly occurs with intrauterine infections (rubella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis), chromosomal abnormalities (cri du chat syndrome, trisomy 13), and toxic drug effects (fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal aminopterin syndrome).

Figure 3.8. Lateral view of the same infant with microcephaly. Microcephaly occurs with intrauterine infections (rubella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis), chromosomal abnormalities (cri du chat syndrome, trisomy 13), and toxic drug effects (fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal aminopterin syndrome).

Fetal Skull Abnormalities

Figure 3.10. Lateral skull radiograph of the same infant. Note die severe microcephaly. The normal ratio of cranial vault to bony facial structures is 4:1.

Abnormalities Baby Skull

Figure 3.11. Macrocephalic head with a fronto-occip-ital circumference of 39 cm in a hypotonic infant with a left cheek skin pit, ear tags, and Goldenhar's syndrome. This infant had an increased head circumference at birth, a fontanelle of normal size, and cranial sutures that are not widened. The face appears relatively normal in size.

Figure 3.12. This term infant had macrocephaly, a prominent brow, and distended scalp veins. Transillumination was positive with the lack of underlying brain tissue being consistent with hydranen-cephaly.

Scalp Vein

3.12

Figure 3.13. Transillumination of the head of the same infant with hydranen-cephaly shown in Figure 3.12. This results from failure of die development of die cerebrum with resulting gross dilatation of die ventricles. Note the "jack-o-lantern" appearance of the eyes and an area of opacity in die transilluminated head. Infants with hydranencephaly may have isolated nubbins of brain tissue. This condition has an extremely poor prognosis.

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