Arnold Chiari Malformation

Meningocele Newborn

Figure 3.63. A lumbosacral meningocele is present in this infant. The lumbosacral area is the most common location for both meningoceles and myelomeningoceles. Infants with men-ingoceles and myelomeningoceles may have an Arnold-Chiari malformation and a high percentage develop hydrocephalus. The quality of life is influenced by the site of the neurologic lesion.

Figure 3.62. This infant has a lumbar meningocele which is an example of a closed neural tube defect. The neural tube closes by infolding from the coccyx to the nasion and defects of fusion can occur anywhere along this axis. Meningoceles occur when the membranes surrounding the spinal cord bulge outward through a dorsal defect in the bony spinal canal. The resulting mass may be tense or fluctuant and is covered by intact skin.

Figure 3.63. A lumbosacral meningocele is present in this infant. The lumbosacral area is the most common location for both meningoceles and myelomeningoceles. Infants with men-ingoceles and myelomeningoceles may have an Arnold-Chiari malformation and a high percentage develop hydrocephalus. The quality of life is influenced by the site of the neurologic lesion.

Arnold Chiari Malformation

Figure 3.64. This infant has a thoracic myelo-meningocele which presents as an open midline defect. Although myelomeningoceles occur most commonly at the lumbosacral level, they may affect the neural tube at any level. The posterior elements covering the spinal canal fail to form, but in this type of defect the cystic mass that bulges out posteriorly contains neural tissue and the surface of the meninges is exposed to the exterior with no skin covering. Large lesions may incorporate a large segment of the spinal cord itself.

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