Neural Tube Defects

Craniorachischisis

Figure 3.32. Radiograph of the same infant with inien-cephaly. Note absence of the laminal and spinal processes of the cervical, dorsal, and sometimes lumbar vertebrae. The vertebrae are reduced in number and are irregularly fused.

Figure 3.31. Iniencephaly is the most severe form of a closed neural tube defect. It results in enlargement of the foramen magnum and fusion of the posterior occiput with the cervicothoracic spine. It is incompatible with survival.

Figure 3.32. Radiograph of the same infant with inien-cephaly. Note absence of the laminal and spinal processes of the cervical, dorsal, and sometimes lumbar vertebrae. The vertebrae are reduced in number and are irregularly fused.

3.33

Lumbar Vertebrae

Figure 3.33. Another infant with iniencephaly showing the lack of a neck due to the fusion of the posterior occiput with the cervicothoracic spine.

Craniorachischisis
Figure 3.35. Craniorachischisis represents the most severe form of an open neural tube defect. Note that the defect in this infant is open from the anterior to the posterior neural pore.

Figure 3.36. Anencephaly is a developmental defect in the brain with an open cranium resulting from failure of the anterior neural tube to close. It is a major open neural tube defect in which there is absence of skull bones, cranial vault, and incomplete development of the brain. Malformation of other organs may occur such as adrenal hypoplasia and genitourinary abnormalities. Anencephaly in this term infant left an exposed fibrotic degenerating ill-defined mass of neural tissue. Most of these infants are stillborn and the remainder die in the immediate neonatal period.

Genitourinary Organs

3.36

Anencephaly Treatment
Figure 3.37. Another infant with anen-cephaly. Anencephaly is more common in females.
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