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Figure 1.151. In this premature infant of 29 weeks' gestation and birthweight 1120 g there is a branchial arch embryopathy resulting in agnathia, microsto-mia, and small posteriorly positioned hypoplastic tongue. The ears are very low set and the lower lobes may be fused to the neck which was short and thin. Aural ascent does not occur due to the lack of development of the jaw, hence the low position of the ears. These infants typically have hypoplastic lungs. (C.Langston)

Branchial Archs

Figure 1.152. Another example of agnathia. Note the low-set ears and microstomia. Hydrocephalus and congenital heart disease are commonly present in branchial arch embryopathy. (C.Langston)

Figure 1.153. This infant with severe micrognathia had significant respiratory distress. Micrognathia is most commonly familial or idiopathic, but many syndromes are associated with this finding.

Figure 1.154. A lateral view of the same infant as in Figure 1.53 showing the marked microg-nathia.

Figure 1.155. Severe micrognathia in an infant who had a small cleft palate (Robin's anomalad). This infant had respiratory distress and major problems with feeding.

Figure 1.155. Severe micrognathia in an infant who had a small cleft palate (Robin's anomalad). This infant had respiratory distress and major problems with feeding.

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