Roberts Harry1 and J Sandy2

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ORTHODONTICS

1.

Who needs

orthodontics?

2.

Patient assessment and

examination I

3.

Patient assessment and

examination II

4.

Treatment planning

5.

Appliance choices

6.

Risks in orthodontic

treatment

7.

Fact and fantasy in

orthodontics

8.

Extractions in

orthodontics

9.

Anchorage control and

distal movement

10. Impacted teeth

11.

Orthodontic tooth

movement

12. Combined orthodontic

treatment

Orthodontic Department, Leeds Dental Institute, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9LU; 2Division of Child Dental Health, University of Bristol Dental School, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LY

Orthodontic Department, Leeds Dental Institute, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9LU; 2Division of Child Dental Health, University of Bristol Dental School, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol BS1 2LY

Refereed Paper doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4810872 © British Dental Journal 2004; 196: 9-18

There are bewildering array of different orthodontic appliances. However, they fall into four main categories of removable, fixed, functional and extra-oral devices. The appliance has to be selected with care and used correctly as inappropriate use can make the malocclusion worse. Removable appliances are only capable of very simple movements whereas fixed appliances are sophisticated devices, which can precisely position the teeth. Functional appliances are useful in difficult cases and are primarily used for Class II Division I malocciusions. Extra-oral devices are used to re-enforce anchorage and can be an aid in both opening and closing spaces.

There are four main types of types of appliance that can be used for orthodontic treatment. These are removable, fixed, functional and extra oral devices.

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