Implants

Osseo-integrated implants can be used as a very secure source of anchorage. Implants integrate with bone and do not have a peri-odontal membrane. Because of this they do not move when a force is applied to them and in some cases they can provide an ideal source of anchorage. Recently small implants for orthodontic use have been specifically designed and can be used in the retro-molar region to move teeth distally or anteriorly for mesial movement. Short 4mm implants can be

Fig. 2 Incorporating as many teeth as possible in the appliance design and covering the anterior palatal vault will increase the anchorage

Fig. 2 Incorporating as many teeth as possible in the appliance design and covering the anterior palatal vault will increase the anchorage

Fig. 3 When fixed appliances are used, as many teeth as possible are banded to increase the anchorage

Fig. 3 When fixed appliances are used, as many teeth as possible are banded to increase the anchorage

= Fig. 4a,b Inter-digitation of the buccal occlusion can help increase anchorage

Fig. 4c Intermaxillary elastics use teeth in the opposite arch as a source of anchorage. Class II traction is shown here

Fig. 4d Class III elastics

paced in the anterior mid-line of the palate in the thickest part of the nasal crest and a transpalatal bar then connects the implants to the teeth (Fig. 6).

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