Laceration to the gingivae, and mucosa seen as areas of ulceration or hyperplasia, often occur during treatment or between treatment sessions from the archwire (Fig. 9) and bonds, especially where long unsupported stretches of wire rest against the lips. The use of dental wax over the bracket may help to reduce trauma and discomfort, (Fig. 10) as may rubber bumper sleeving on the unsupported archwire (Fig. 11).
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