References

1. Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, Key TJ, Knochenhauer ES, Yildiz BO. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2745-2749.

2. Gallagher TF, Kappas A, Hellman L, Lipsett MB, Pearson OH, West CD. Adrenocortical hyperfunction in idiopathic hirsutism and the Stein-Leventhal syndrome. J Clin Invest 1958;37:794-799.

3. Wild RA, Umstot ES, Andersen RN, Ranney GB, Givens JR. Androgen parameters and their correlation with body weight in one hundred thirty-eight women thought to have hyperandrogenism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;146:602-606.

4. Hoffman DI, Klove K, Lobo RA. The prevalence and significance of elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in anovulatory women. Fertil Steril 1984;42:76-81.

5. Steinberger E, Smith KD, Rodriguez-Rigau LJ. Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in hyperandrogenic women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;59:471-477.

6. Carmina E, Rosato F, Janni A. Increased DHEAs levels in PCO syndrome: evidence for the existence of two subgroups of patients. J Endocrinol Invest 1986;9:5-9.

7. Price FV, Legro RS, Watt-Morse M, Kaplan SS. Chediak-Higashi syndrome in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:804-806.

8. Levin JH, Carmina E, Lobo RA. Is the inappropriate gonadotropin secretion of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome similar to that of patients with adult-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Fertil Steril 1991;56:635-640.

9. Carmina E, Lobo RA. Ovarian suppression reduces clinical and endocrine expression of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Fertil Steril 1994;62:738-743.

10. Dewailly D, Vantyghem-Haudiquet MC, Sainsard C, et al. Clinical and biological phenotypes in late-onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63:418-423.

11. Moran C, Azziz R, Carmina E, et al. 21-Hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia is a progressive disorder: a multicenter study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:1468-1474.

12. Lobo RA, Goebelsmann U, Horton R. Evidence for the importance of peripheral tissue events in the development of hirsutism in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;57:393-397.

13. Ibanez L, Potau N, Virdis R, et al. Postpubertal outcome in girls diagnosed of premature pubarche during childhood: increased frequency of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;76:1599-1603.

14. Miller D, Emans SJ, Kohane I. Follow-up study of adolescent girls with a history of premature pubarche. J Adolesc Health 1996;18:301-305.

15. Ibanez L, Potau N, Zampolli M, Street ME, Carrascosa A. Girls diagnosed with premature pubarche show an exaggerated ovarian androgen synthesis from the early stages of puberty: evidence from gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist testing. Fertil Steril 1997;67:849-855.

16. Meas T, Chevenne D, Thibaud E, et al. Endocrine consequences of premature pubarche in post-pubertal Caucasian girls. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002;57:101-106.

17. Korth-Schutz S, Levine LS, New MI. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) levels, a rapid test for abnormal adrenal androgen secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976;42:1005-1013.

18. Lobo RA, Paul WL, Goebelsmann U. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate as an indicator of adrenal androgen function. Obstet Gynecol 1981;57:69-73.

19. Feher T, Poteczin E, Bodrogi L. Relationship between serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and urinary 17-ketoster-oid values. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1985;85:209-216.

20. Abraham GE, Chakmakjian ZH. Serum steroid levels during the menstrual cycle in a bilaterally adrenalectomized woman. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1973;37:581-587.

21. Abraham GE. Ovarian and adrenal contribution to peripheral androgens during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1974;39:340-346.

22. Vermeulen A. Androgen secretion by adrenals and gonads. In: Mahesh VB, Greenblatt RM, eds. Hirsutism and Virilism. Boston: John Wright/PSG Inc., 1983:17.

23. Nieschlag E, Loriaux DL, Ruder HJ, Zucker IR, Kirschner MA, Lipsett MB. The secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in man. J Endocrinol 1973;57:123-134.

24. Mikulecky M, Kreze A, Putz Z, Moravcik M. Daily variation of serum cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and five androgens in healthy women. Braz J Med Biol Res 1995;28:485-490.

25. Rosenfeld RS, Rosenberg BJ, Fukushima DK, Hellman L. 24-Hour secretory pattern of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;40:850-855.

26. Wang DY, Bulbrook RD, Sneddon A, Hamilton T. The metabolic clearance rates of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and their sulphate esters in man, rat and rabbit. J Endocrinol 1967;38:307-318.

27. Gant NF, Hutchinson HT, Siiteri PK, MacDonald PC. Study of the metabolic clearance rate of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1971;111:555-563.

28. Baulieu EE, Corpechot C, Dray F, et al. An adrenal-secreted "androgen": dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate. Its metabolism and a tentative generalization on the metabolism of other steroid conjugates in man. Recent Prog Horm Res 1965;21:411-500.

29. Longcope C. Dehydroepiandrosterone metabolism. J Endocrinol 1996;150(suppl):S125-127.

30. Legrain S, Massien C, Lahlou N, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement administration: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy elderly subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:3208-3217.

31. Kumar A, Woods KS, Bartolucci AA, Azziz R. Prevalence of adrenal androgen excess in patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2005;62:644-649.

32. Azziz R, Koulianos G. Adrenal androgens and reproductive aging in females. Semin Reprod Endo 1991;9:249-260.

33. Moran C, Knochenhauer E, Boots LR, Azziz R. Adrenal androgen excess in hyperandrogenism: relation to age and body mass. Fertil Steril 1999;71:671-674.

34. Carmina E, Koyama T, Chang L, Stanczyk FZ, Lobo RA. Does ethnicity influence the prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:1807-1812.

35. Huerta R, Dewailly D, Decanter C, Knochenhauer ES, Boots LR, Azziz R. 11-Beta-hydroxyandrostenedione and delta5-androstenediol as markers of adrenal androgen production in patients with 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia. Fertil Steril 1999;72:996-1000.

36. Sanchez LA, Moran C, Reyna R, Ochoa T, Boots LR, Azziz R. Adrenal progestogen and androgen production in 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia is partially independent of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation. Fertil Steril 2002;77:750-753.

37. Azziz R, Gay FL, Potter SR, Bradley E Jr, Boots LR. The effects of prolonged hypertestosteronemia on adrenocortical biosynthesis in oophorectomized women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;72:1025-1030.

38. Carmina E, Levin JH, Malizia G, Lobo RA. Ovine corticotropin-releasing factor and dexamethasone responses in hyperandrogenic women. Fertil Steril 1990;54:245-250.

39. Horrocks PM, Kandeel FR, London DR, et al. Acth function in women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1983;19:143-150.

40. Carmina E, Lobo RA. Pituitary-adrenal responses to ovine corticotropin-releasing factor in polycystic ovary syndrome and in other hyperandrogenic patients. Gynecol Endocrinol 1990;4:225-232.

41. Azziz R, Black V, Hines GA, Fox LM, Boots LR. Adrenal androgen excess in the polycystic ovary syndrome: sensitivity and responsivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2317-2323.

42. Azziz R, Bradley E, Jr., Huth J, Boots LR, Parker CR Jr, Zacur HA. Acute adrenocorticotropin-(1-24) (ACTH) adrenal stimulation in eumenorrheic women: reproducibility and effect of ACTH dose, subject weight, and sampling time. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70:1273-1279.

43. Azziz R. Abnormalities of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in PCOS. In: Azziz R, Nestler JE, Dewailly D, eds. Androgen Excess Disorders in Women. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997:403-414.

44. Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, et al. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:453-462.

45. Lutfallah C, Wang W, Mason JI, et al. Newly proposed hormonal criteria via genotypic proof for type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2611-2622.

46. Joehrer K, Geley S, Strasser-Wozak EM, et al. CYP11B1 mutations causing non-classic adrenal hyperplasia due to 11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency. Hum Mol Genet 1997;6:1829-1834.

47. Lobo RA, Goebelsmann U. Evidence for reduced 3 beta-ol-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in some hirsute women thought to have polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;53:394-400.

48. Pang SY, Lerner AJ, Stoner E, et al. Late-onset adrenal steroid 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. I. A cause of hirsutism in pubertal and postpubertal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;60:428-439.

49. Siegel SF, Finegold DN, Lanes R, Lee PA. ACTH stimulation tests and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women with hirsutism. N Engl J Med 1990;323:849-854.

50. Azziz R, Bradley EL, Jr., Potter HD, Boots LR. 3 Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency in hyperandrogenism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:889-895.

51. Carbunaru G, Prasad P, Scoccia B, et al. The hormonal phenotype of Nonclassic 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) deficiency in hyperandrogenic females is associated with insulin-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome and is not a variant of inherited HSD3B2 deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:783-794.

52. Moran C, Reyna R, Boots LS, Azziz R. Adrenocortical hyperresponsiveness to corticotropin in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with adrenal androgen excess. Fertil Steril 2004;81:126-131.

53. Kahsar-Miller M, Boots LR, Bartolucci A, Azziz R. Role of a CYP17 polymorphism in the regulation of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004;82:973-975.

54. Walker BR, Rodin A, Taylor NF, Clayton RN. Endogenous inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 do not explain abnormal cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;52:77-80.

55. Stewart PM, Shackleton CH, Beastall GH, Edwards CR. 5 Alpha-reductase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome. Lancet 1990;335:431-433.

56. Tsilchorozidou T, Honour JW, Conway GS. Altered cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome: insulin enhances 5alpha-reduction but not the elevated adrenal steroid production rates. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:5907-5913.

57. Hines GA, Smith ER, Azziz R. Influence of insulin and testosterone on adrenocortical steroidogenesis in vitro: preliminary studies. Fertil Steril 2001;76:730-735.

58. Carmina E, Gonzalez F, Chang L, Lobo RA. Reassessment of adrenal androgen secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:971-976.

59. Ditkoff EC, Fruzzetti F, Chang L, Stancyzk FZ, Lobo RA. The impact of estrogen on adrenal androgen sensitivity and secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:603-607.

60. Slayden SM, Crabbe L, Bae S, Potter HD, Azziz R, Parker CR, Jr. The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on adrenocortical sensitivity, responsiveness, and steroidogenesis in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:519-524.

61. Polderman KH, Gooren LJ, van der Veen EA. Effects of gonadal androgens and oestrogens on adrenal androgen levels. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1995;43:415-421.

62. Futterweit W, Green G, Tarlin N, Dunaif A. Chronic high-dosage androgen administration to ovulatory women does not alter adrenocortical steroidogenesis. Fertil Steril 1992;58:124-128.

63. Marin CM, Bartolucci A, Azziz R. Prevalence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients using the homeostatic measurement assessment (HOMA-IR). Fertil Steril 2003;80:274-275.

64. Carmina E, Lobo RA. Use of fasting blood to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004;82:661-665.

65. Barbieri RL, Makris A, Randall RW, Daniels G, Kistner RW, Ryan KJ. Insulin stimulates androgen accumulation in incubations of ovarian stroma obtained from women with hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;62:904-910.

66. Moghetti P, Castello R, Negri C, et al. Insulin infusion amplifies 17 alpha-hydroxycorticosteroid intermediates response to adrenocorticotropin in hyperandrogenic women: apparent relative impairment of 17,20-lyase activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:881-886.

67. Azziz R, Ehrmann DA, Legro RS, Fereshetian AG, O'Keefe M, Ghazzi MN. Troglitazone decreases adrenal androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2003;79:932-937.

68. Arlt W, Auchus RJ, Miller WL. Thiazolidinediones but not metformin directly inhibit the steroidogenic enzymes P450c17 and 3beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 2001;276:16767-16771.

69. Azziz R, Ehrmann D, Legro RS, et al. Troglitazone improves ovulation and hirsutism in the polycystic ovary syndrome: a multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1626-1632.

70. Falcone T, Finegood DT, Fantus IG, Morris D. Androgen response to endogenous insulin secretion during the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test in normal and hyperandrogenic women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:1653-1657.

71. Farah-Eways L, Reyna R, Knochenhauer ES, Bartolucci AA, Azziz R. Glucose action and adrenocortical biosynthesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004;81:120-125.

72. Rotter JI, Wong FL, Lifrak ET, Parker LN. A genetic component to the variation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Metabolism 1985;34:731-736.

73. Azziz R, Fox LM, Zacur HA, Parker CR, Jr., Boots LR. Adrenocortical secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy women: highly variable response to adrenocorticotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:2513-2517.

74. Yildiz BO, Woods KS, Stanczyk F, Bartolucci A, Azziz R. Stability of adrenocortical steroidogenesis over time in healthy women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:5558-5562.

75. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Demers L, Wang SC, Bentley-Lewis R, Dunaif A. Elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels as the reproductive phenotype in the brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2134-2138.

Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment