The current chapter was prepared to help clinicians examine patients with parkinsonian syndromes and to detect clinical signs and clues that should alert to the appropriate diagnosis. For the main clinical diagnosis criteria of various parkinsonian syndromes (Parkinson's disease [PD], multiple system atrophy [MSA], progressive supranuclear palsy [PSP], corticobasal degeneration [CBD], and dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB],), the semiology will be detailed. The validity and reliability of these criteria will not be touched upon, as they were extensively reviewed recently in a reference paper by Litvan and colleagues (1).
We will consider (a) medical history and clinical description of the cardinal signs and helpful clues and (b) how they relate to the established diagnostic criteria of various parkinsonian syndromes.
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