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At the centre is the nasal cavity (red), and above that is the front part of the brain (blue and red). This region of the brain is part of the cerebrum, and is concerned with conscious thought, personality and memory. With permission from Alfred Pasieka Science Photo Library.
In order to assess the need for orthodontic treatment, various indices have been developed. The one used most commonly in the United Kingdom is the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN).4 This index attempts to rank malocclusion, in order, from worst to best. It comprises two parts, an aesthetic component and a dental health component (Table 3). The aesthetic component consists of a series of ten photographs ranging from most to least attractive. The idea is to match the patient's malocclusion as closely as possible with one of the photographs. It is unlikely that a perfect match will be found but the practitioner should use his or her best guess to match to the nearest equivalent photograph. The dental health component consists of a series of occlusal traits that could affect the long-term dental health of the teeth. Various features are graded from 1-5 (least severe worst). The worst feature of the presenting malocclusion is matched to the list and given the appropriate score.
Photo Library Digital files of instructionally significant photographs from the text including The Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual by Eric Wise of Santa Barbara City College is expressly written to coincide with the chapters of Anatomy & Physiology. This lab manual has been revised to include clearer explanations of physiology experiments and computer simulations that serve as alternatives to frog experimentation. Other improvements include a greatly expanded set of review questions at the end of each lab, plus numerous new photographs and artwork. This exhaustive set of over 1,000 transparency overheads includes every piece of line art in the textbook, tables, and several key photographs. An additional set of 150 unla-beled line art duplicates is also available for testing purposes or custom labeling. Images are printed with better visibility and contrast than ever before, and labels are large and bold for clear projection.
Monocytederived Cells and T Lymphocytes Accompany Asymmetric Division of OSE Stem Cells and Migration of Germ Cells in
Similar to fetal ovaries, we also detected association of MDC and T cells with asymmetric division of OSE stem cells during the commitment of differentiating daughters to germ cells and their migration in adult human ovaries (Bukovsky et al. 1995). We used single color immunohistochemistry with antibodies recognizing CD14 of primitive MDC, CD8 of T lymphocytes, HLA-DR of activated MDC, and Thy-1 DP of vascular pericytes. Asymmetric division of OSE cells and development of putative germ cells were visualized by differential interference contrast and digital camera with detail enhancement.
Previous work in our laboratories concentrated on vessel segmentation of fluorescein angiograms obtained from the Albury Eye Clinic, as described in Chapter 5. Our current research aims at providing an assessment tool for community health workers for identification of neovascularization within the optic fundus associated with diabetes using red-free images from non-mydriatic cameras. Community health workers do not use fluorescein for enhancement of vessels for visualizations and, most often, do not have digital cameras available to capture images. Therefore, assessment of the optic fundus is complicated due to the lower resolution of the images obtained from SLR or Polaroid cameras and a smaller field of view obtained from the nonmydriatic camera. We concentrated on two aspects (1) segmentation of the images obtained from nonmydriatic cameras and captured with a 30-mm SLR camera followed by scanning these photos at 300 dpi for segmentation, and (2) analysis of the vessel patterns to...
This section presents the detailed neuroanatomy that is needed for localization of lesions in the brainstem. A series of illustrations is presented through the brainstem to enable the learner to integrate the nuclei, both cranial nerve and other important nuclei, and the tracts passing through that region. Accompanying these schematics are photographs of the brainstem from the human brain at the same levels. The same approach is used for the spinal cord, a common site for clinical disease and traumatic injuries.
The diagnosis and surgical treatment of knee injuries has been greatly improved by arthroscopy, a procedure in which the interior of a joint is viewed with a pencil-thin instrument, the arthroscope, inserted through a small incision. The arthroscope has a light source, a lens, and fiber optics that allow a viewer to see into the cavity, take photographs or videotapes of the joint, and withdraw samples of synovial fluid. Saline is often introduced through one incision to expand the joint and provide a clearer view of its structures. If surgery is required, additional small incisions can be made for the surgical instruments and the procedures can be observed through the arthroscope or on a monitor. Arthroscopic surgery produces much less tissue damage than conventional surgery and enables patients to recover more quickly.
The first attempted test launch on 1 October 1945 fell victim to a faulty igniter unit and was scrubbed. The following day, witnessed by British, American and Russian military observers, another V-2 was successfully launched and arced out over the Baltic Sea. Two more launches would be conducted, with the last of the test rockets plunging into the planned target area in the North Sea on 15 October 13 . Having encountered very few problems of significance, Operation Backfire was considered a success and subsequently shut down. All of the data and photographs were later sent for analysis by rocketry and weapons experts. Operation Backfire, for all its problems, successfully completed a comprehensive technical documentation of the formidable rocket, its fuel systems and composition, and support procedures.
Efforts are underway nationwide to train emergency room staff and medical students in the identification and treatment of violence against women. Currently, few medical schools spend more than a few minutes on evaluating and treating women for abuse injury. Studies of hospital clinics and emergency rooms reveal that many physicians do not recognize the signs of abuse and few ever ask the woman whether she is in a violent relationship or whether her injuries are the result of interpersonal conflict. When the batterer does accompany the woman to the ER oftentimes he may not be separated from the woman when she is questioned about her injuries. Clearly, policies aimed at educating emergency room personnel are needed to protect abused women and to facilitate the prosecution of the abuser. Just as in the case of rape, when a woman's claim of abuse is backed up by medical reports and photographs of her injuries, the case will be stronger in court. Many feminists argue that woman abuse will...
Catheter identification, of course, becomes important both for input into the treatment planning and during catheter connection. Labeling catheters is discussed above. During input into the treatment planning system, it is useful to have photographs both from the tip end and the connector end. Figure 13.3 shows a photograph of the tip end. One of the easiest and surest ways to establish which exit button corresponds to which entrance catheter number is at the time of insertion of the imaging markers to watch for the marker to show at the bottom of the catheter (in most catheters the shadow of the marker can be seen in the center of the button) or to feel the marker hit the bottom of the button on insertion. These photographs serve for verification.
Following delivery, the parents are usually encouraged to see and hold their dead baby. Photographs of the baby should be taken and kept with the medical records even if the parents do not wish to see the baby. The obstetric and midwifery staff should ensure that help is available for registering the stillbirth, discussing postmortem examination and making any funeral arrangements.
In 1937 von Verschuer was asked, as an expert on paternity, to give his expert opinion on the following case (11). A young man was accused of having offended against the Nuremberg laws by having a love affair with a non-Jewish German woman. He had a Jewish father. He claimed that his Jewish mother had told him already, when he was a child, that during WWI she had had an affair with a non-Jewish German officer, and he was the son of this officer. All the neighbours knew it. So he was only a half-Jew and not to be accused. The officer was dead, and only a very few photographs existed. Von Verschuer was asked to give his expert opinion on the paternity. Von Verschuer asked his Assistent Mengele to do the job. Mengele did so and came to the conclusion that the legal father was the biological father. But the court believed the young man, his mother and his neighbours and set him free. Von Verschuer could have accepted this defeat. But he did not. He wrote an angry letter to the secretary...
Flying more than 70,000 feet above Soviet Kazakhstan, an altitude which exceeded the reach of any Soviet interceptor aircraft, an alert pilot of an American Lockheed U-2 spy plane spotted something interesting in the distance and departed from his prescribed course to get some photographs. What he found would astound his intelligence chiefs in Washington. He had inadvertently stumbled upon the Baikonur launch facility. This was the crown jewel of Soviet space technology, whose existence had not even been suspected , according to the memoirs of Richard M. Bissell Jr., director of the American U-2 spy plane programme and of photoreconnaissance at the Central Intelligence Agency 1 .
Multiple system atrophy. (A) Gross photographs of a case of striatonigral degeneration showing atrophy and discoloration of the putamen (arrows) and loss of pigmentation of the substantia nigra (inset). (B) Gross photograph showing atrophy of the pons in a case of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) compared with normal control (C). (C,D) Numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendrocytes (Gallyas silver stain). (E) GCIs immunoreactive for a-synuclein. Fig. 3. Multiple system atrophy. (A) Gross photographs of a case of striatonigral degeneration showing atrophy and discoloration of the putamen (arrows) and loss of pigmentation of the substantia nigra (inset). (B) Gross photograph showing atrophy of the pons in a case of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) compared with normal control (C). (C,D) Numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendrocytes (Gallyas silver stain). (E) GCIs immunoreactive for a-synuclein.
Fig. 13.10. (Opposite) Electron micrographs of Edwardsiella ictaluri in olfactory organ of channel catfish. (A) Scanning electron micrograph of the olfactory mucosal surface following direct experimental E. ictaluri infection with a cluster of bacteria attached to the epithelial surface. Note the fine filamentous processes extending from E. ictaluri (arrows) (x 13,500). (B) Transmission electron micrograph of the olfactory mucosal surface 1 h following direct experimental E. ictaluri infection. The bacteria (large arrows) are close to the epithelial surface (arrowhead), which has no cellular cilia but has increased secretory vesicles of host mucosal cells (small arrows) (x 2565). (C) Transmission electron micrograph showing several catfish leucocytes in the interlamellar space of the olfactory rosette. A number of E. ictaluri can be seen within cellular phagosomes (arrows) (x 4590). (Photographs courtesy of E.E. Morrison and K.G. Wolfe.)
Long after most European nations had made legal provisions for anatomical studies, body snatching provided the bulk of the teaching material for gross anatomy in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Anatomists too timid to obtain cadavers themselves turned to entrepreneurs known as ''Resurrectionists'' or ''Sack-Em-Up Men,'' who procured bodies by grave robbing, extortion, and murder. In England, under the Murder Act of George II, the bodies of criminals considered vile enough to be worthy of death and dissection were awarded to the Royal College of Surgeons as a ''peculiar mark of Infamy added to the Punishment.'' When England's 1832 Anatomy Act allowed the state to give the unclaimed bodies of paupers to medical schools, poverty became virtually as deeply stigmatized as criminality. It is interesting to note that the Visible Human Project began with the use of a 39-year-old criminal executed by lethal injection in 1993. The body was frozen, sectioned, and transformed into...
Cell cultures demonstrate organization under the influence of angiogenic factors. Serial microscopic images show progressive organization of cells into vascular elements. Such images can be acquired digitally at regular time intervals by a camera attachment to the microscope. Alternatively, photographs may be obtained optically and subsequently scanned digitally for analysis by software. The goal is to convert the visual record of vascular development to a quantitative measure.
The definition of psychotic symptoms (i.e., delusions, delusional misidentification, and hallucinations) requires particular consideration as these symptoms are very frequent in some parkinsonian disorders, particularly in patients with dementia. In addition, as they are phenomenologically different from psychotic symptoms occurring in patients with functional psychoses and cannot be reliably observed or inferred from behavior, a specific method is required to identify these symptoms in patients with cognitive impairments. According to Burns, delusions are defined as false, unshakable ideas or beliefs that are held with extraordinary conviction and subjective certainty (3). To minimize overlap with confabulation and delirium, they should be reiterated on at least two occasions more than 1 wk apart. Hallucinations are described as percepts in the absence of a stimulus, reported directly by either the patient or indirectly via an informant, and may occur in any modality. Typically,...
His tested IQ was in the very superior range. He had perfect scores for both the verbal and math portions of the SAT. His grades in college courses varied widely, usually between A and F with not many in between. He explained, It all depended on whether I was interested in the course. Professors in a variety of subjects often commented that his papers were brilliant and encouraged him to follow through with more advanced studies. This hyper man was also very creative he was skilled at playing many musical instruments and had won awards for photographs he had taken. He had an appealing manner and a quick wit. But he was also very impulsive, hyperactive, and restless, both cognitively and behaviorally.
Having just studied skeletal and muscular anatomy in the preceding chapters, this is an opportune time for you to study the body surface. Much of what we see there reflects the underlying structure of the superficial bones and muscles. A broad photographic overview of surface anatomy is given in atlas A (see fig. A.5). In the following pages, we examine the body literally from head (fig. B.1) to toe (fig. B.14), studying its regions in more detail. To make the most profitable use of this atlas, refer to the skeletal and muscular anatomy in chapters 8 to 10. Relate drawings of the clavicles in chapter 8 to the photograph in figure B.1, for example. Study the shape of the scapula in chapter 8 and see how much of it you can trace on the photographs in figure B.3. See if you can relate the tendons For learning surface anatomy, there is a resource available to you that is far more valuable than any laboratory model or textbook illustration your own body. For the best understanding of human...
Paramyozonaria sp. (Macrostomida) showing radial striations in each of the lamellae. D. Trilaminar cortex (three arrows) surrounding a heterogeneous core of a mature rhabdite from Macrostomum sp. 2 (Macrostomida) of Smith et at. (1982). All scale bars 1 j.m. E. Rhabdite gland cell from Stylochus zebra (Polycladida) lying just above the basement membrane (BM) within the epidermis. Protorhabdites (Pr) occur adjacent to a prominent Golgi apparatus (G) and are not surrounded by microtubules. Scale bar 2 (j.m. (All photographs reproduced with permission from Smith, J.P.S. et al. (1982). The morphology of turbellarian rhabdites phylogenetic implications. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 101, 209-228.)
Figure 11 Transmission electron micrographs of secretions from Craspedella pedum (Temnocephalida) opening onto the ventral surface of the posterior attachment disc. A. Gland ducts containing secretory products type 1 (sgl) and type 4 (sg4) and epitheliosomes (es). B. Gland ducts containing secretory products type 1 (sgl), type 2 (sg2) and type 3 (sg3). In both photographs, note the absence of specialized anchor cells sensu Tyler (1976). Scale bars 0.5 um. (Dr K.B. Sewell, original photographs reproduced with permission.)
Fig. 12a, b Pre treatment photographs of a patient with palatally impacted canine, a buccal cross bite, an increased overjet and crowding in both arches Fig. 14a,b Pre-treatment photographs of a 12-year-old girl with an increased overjet and a class II skeletal pattern associated with a retrognathic mandible
ALS parkinsonism dementia complex of Guam. (A,B) Numerous neurofibrillary tangles in CA1 region of hippocampus (A, tau-immunohistochemistry) and temporal neocortex (B, Bielschowsky silver stain). Photographs courtesy of C. Schwab. Fig. 6. ALS parkinsonism dementia complex of Guam. (A,B) Numerous neurofibrillary tangles in CA1 region of hippocampus (A, tau-immunohistochemistry) and temporal neocortex (B, Bielschowsky silver stain). Photographs courtesy of C. Schwab.
Progressive supranuclear palsy. Gross photographs showing (A) lobar frontal atrophy and (B) atrophy and discoloration of basal ganglia. (C) Multiple neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and pretangles in midbrain (tau-immunohistochemistry). (D) Globose NFT (H&E stain). (E) Tufted-astrocyte (Gallyas silver stain). (F) Grumose degeneration (arrows) of neurons in cerebellar dentate nucleus (H&E stain). Fig. 5. Progressive supranuclear palsy. Gross photographs showing (A) lobar frontal atrophy and (B) atrophy and discoloration of basal ganglia. (C) Multiple neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and pretangles in midbrain (tau-immunohistochemistry). (D) Globose NFT (H&E stain). (E) Tufted-astrocyte (Gallyas silver stain). (F) Grumose degeneration (arrows) of neurons in cerebellar dentate nucleus (H&E stain).
Figure 15 Transmission electron micrographs of secretory bodies found in the gland ducts which open through the adhesive area of Merizocotyle australensis (Monogenea Monopisthocotylea Monocotylidae). A. Two types of secretory bodies, rod-like (SI) and spherical (S2), are found in separate ducts but are adjacent to each other where the ducts open. Microvilli (mi) are visible. Scale bar 1 pm. B. The rod-shaped secretion shows fine banding (arrowhead). Scale bar 200 nm. C. In transverse section, the rod-shaped secretion looks spherical or elliptical and the bodies are densely packed into the ducts (arrowhead). Scale bar 1 pm. D. Longitudinal sections through the rod-shaped secretion shows parallel stacking. Scale bar 1 pm. (B.W. Cribb and I.D. Whittington, original photographs.) Figure 15 Transmission electron micrographs of secretory bodies found in the gland ducts which open through the adhesive area of Merizocotyle australensis (Monogenea Monopisthocotylea Monocotylidae). A. Two types...
This taxon was described by Sassi (1920) from specimens collected in the Ituri region of the Democratic Republic of Congo by Grauer. The type and two other specimens are in the Natural History Museum in Vienna a fourth specimen initially identified as belonging to this species was later assigned to Ploceus flavipes by Stresemann (1925). I have not seen the material in Vienna, but Dr Walter Sontag sent me photographs of these specimens, and Dr Anita Gamauf provided measurements I took my own measurements of three specimens in the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Three specimens were collected in 1910, two in 1921, and one in 1926. In 1986 sight records were reported, including a flock of up to 60 birds (Collar et al., 1994), although perhaps for this canopy species However, there is the third possibility, namely that P. aureonucha is in fact merely a plumage stage of another species. Immature specimens of P. tricolor in the Africa Museum at Tervuren immediately recalled...
Reproduced with permission from Dr P Marazzi Science Photo Library Coloured x-rays showing a healthy human intestine, and the same intestine which has become obstructed. Reproduced with permission from Bsip Vem Science Photo Library Coloured x-rays showing a healthy human intestine, and the same intestine which has become obstructed. Reproduced with permission from Bsip Vem Science Photo Library
Several of my students have modeled for photographs in this book. As much as possible with the volunteers who came forth, I have represented an ethnic variety of subjects. The third most highly rated quality is the package of learning supplements for the student and teaching aids for the instructor. Instructors have rated overhead transparencies the most important of all supplements, and we now include transparencies of every item of line art in the book, and some of the photographs and tables. Included are unlabeled duplicates of many anatomical figures, useful for testing or labeling to fit one's individual teaching approach. A full set of both labeled and unlabeled illustrations is also available in the Instructor's Presentation CD-ROM.
The Public Information Division of the Air Force's Office of Information had been working overtime in the lead-up to the Discoverer monkey flight. By January 1961, a series of photographs showing the training of the animals had been assembled and suitable captions prepared for release to the media. Air Force Headquarters in
It was not until the lift-off of Discoverer XIII on 10 August 1960 that the programme finally achieved its first fully successful mission. Because of the earlier failures, the managers decided to fly the spacecraft without a camera or film, and to instead fill it with diagnostic sensors. This time the recovery capsule was ejected on the 17th orbit, and safely plucked from the sea not by a ''catch'' aircraft but a waiting helicopter. As on previous attempts, the only significant payload it carried was an American flag -bearing a 50th star for the new state of Hawaii. Amid much fanfare this capsule and its parachute were transported to Washington, where President Eisenhower openly told reporters it was an ''historic'' occasion. Then he and various generals had their photographs taken with their hands on the capsule, emphasising with wide grins the ''innocent'' nature of this spacecraft and programme. The press conference was impromptu and not popular with those who were concerned about...
Fact Add is a complex disorder that involves impairments in focus organization motivation emotional modulation memory
Imagine a large carton filled with photographs taken throughout your life. The carton is filled with snapshots of you and various family members roller skating or riding bikes, fishing off a pier or swimming in a lake, dressing up for Halloween or setting off for the first day of school. Some are posed with you in your Scout or Little League uniform or in costume for a dance recital. Others are candid shots taken around a birthday cake, in the midst of holiday celebrations, or at other memorable moments. Given a box of such photos all mixed together, you might want to sort them to take a more systematic look. There are many ways you could do the sorting. You might put together all photos of a certain kind of activity, regardless of time or place all of the holidays, vacation shots, or birthday parties. Or you might sort according to age periods, for example, all elementary school snapshots together, then all high school photos, then those taken in college, and so on. Yet whatever...
Corona was approved by President Eisenhower in February 1958 upon the recommendations of his senior intelligence advisors. The programme's primary aim was to take spy photographs of the Soviet Union and Sino-Soviet Bloc countries from orbit and later retrieve the film for processing and analysis. The spy satellite had been developed as a top-secret project, and its existence was not officially acknowledged until 1995.
The woman shown in the photographs had acute erysipelas due to streptococcal infection, and all four features of inflammation were present. She was referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of an acute allergic response, which, from the appearance alone, was understandable. However, malaise and fever were also present and the lesions were warm and tender. The condition responded well to antibiotic treatment. The point of entry in such cases is thought to be a small erosion on the face. Erysipelas of the leg or foot may follow the development of a small fissure between the toes, but often there is no discernible portal of entry.
Table-top system (top) whose schematic is shown in Figure 3. In the three photographs at bottom, the first-generation clinical system (schematically similar to the table-top system) is shown with its fibers opened to three different diameters. Each fiber is adjusted one tooth at a time through a mechanical gearing system that simultaneously moves all fibers radially inwards or outwards. Figure 4. Table-top system (top) whose schematic is shown in Figure 3. In the three photographs at bottom, the first-generation clinical system (schematically similar to the table-top system) is shown with its fibers opened to three different diameters. Each fiber is adjusted one tooth at a time through a mechanical gearing system that simultaneously moves all fibers radially inwards or outwards. We have systematically examined the impact of the properties and size of the homogeneous calibration phantom on image quality by calibrating with different homogeneous phantoms before repeatedly...
Special acknowledgements are made to Dr. Mila Blaivas (Michigan), Dr. Andrea Vass (Vienna), Ms. Judy Boldt, Ms. Denice Janus, Ms. Piya Mahendru (Michigan), Ms. Claudia Steffek (Vienna), and Mr. Petri Wieder from Springer. The authors are grateful to Mr. James Hiller who provided financial assistance for the colour photographs.
We have deleted some sections that contained detailed accounts of techniques that are rarely encountered in modern laboratories, while retaining reference to the important classical methods that do provide the basis of current methodology. New material has been added to bring some topics up to date and these include increased coverage of laboratory quality, safety and accreditation, use of kits, mass spectrometry, and capillary electrophoresis. Many other changes have been made, not least of which is a completely new layout of the typescript with boxed areas for emphasis. We hope this will aid understanding and make the book more 'user friendly'. Two types of self test question are also included, which are designed to be simple indicators of an understanding of the basic concepts of the section and not a comprehensive test of knowledge of the topics. We have decided not to include photographs of particular instruments, as they are often not particularly informative and the designs...
In December 2004, a plea for assistance caught my eye in the highly-regarded collectSPACE online forum (www.collectspace.com). It was written by a Pennsylvania-based enthusiast named Chris Dubbs, who was desperately seeking any further photographs of Russian space dogs for an exhibition he was mounting in New Mexico. I already knew of Chris through my copy of his wonderful children's non-fiction book Space Dogs,'' and I was keen to help. In researching my own book on Laika and other space animals I'd accumulated a number of obscure photographs relating to the Russian space dogs, so I sent scans of these to Chris. We quickly began discussing our mutual interest in the subject, and just before Christmas decided to seek out a suitable publisher and put together a proposal for a comprehensive, co-authored book on animal space flights.
The atlas was originally published with the title of Student's Atlas of Neuroanatomy. The diagrams in the first editions were created by Mr. Jean-Pierre Morrissey, a medical student at the time he did the work. To these were added photographs of brain specimens taken by Mr. Stanley Klosevych, who was then the director of the Health Sciences Communication Services, University of Ottawa. Mr. Emil Purgina, a medical artist with the same unit, assisted in these early editions and added his own illustration. Dr. Andrei Rosen subsequently created the airbrush diagrams (note particularly the basal ganglia, thalamus, and limbic system) and expanded the pool of illustrations. For the previous edition of the atlas under its new title The Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy many of the earlier illustrations were replaced by computer-generated diagrams done by Mr. Gordon Wright, a medical illustrator. Mr. Wright also put together the CD-ROM for the previous edition, which contained all the...
We would like to thank the following people for their help in providing photographs Michael Colquhoun Cliff Randall, Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust Dr Rupert Evans and staff of the accident and emergency department, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff the resuscitation training department, Worcester Royal Hospitals, Worcester Gavin D Perkins, Simon Giles, and John Dodds at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital.
The Atlas is divided into four sections, each with an introductory text. The focus is on the illustrations, photographs, diagrams, radiographs, and histological material, accompanied by explanatory text on the opposite page. omy, includes a neurological orientation and detailed neu-roanatomical information, to allow the student to work through the neurological question Where is the disease process occurring (i.e., neurological localization) Because vascular lesions are still most common and relate closely to the functional neuroanatomy, the blood supply to the brain is presented in some detail, using photographs with overlays. The emphasis in this section is on the brain-stem, including a select series of histological cross-sections of the human brainstem. In addition, there is a summary of the spinal cord nuclei and tracts, along with a histological view of levels of the human cord. Section D The section on the Limbic System has once again been revised. New photographs of limbic...
Man in cardiac intensive care on a respirator and linked to a nasogastric tube. Reproduced with permission from Deep Light Productions Science Photo Library Man in cardiac intensive care on a respirator and linked to a nasogastric tube. Reproduced with permission from Deep Light Productions Science Photo Library
Retinal photography through dilated pupils. The preferred method now uses digital photography which yields suitable images which can be electronically stored, making them easily available for consultation, review, and teaching. Conventional colour photographs also provide good images, whereas the quality of Polaroid photographs is less than ideal.
Ostensibly, there was nothing hidden from the public about the airborne recovery of these satellites in fact, photographs were released showing the dramatic and skilful capture of one of these descending satellites by C-119s in a procedure that would become almost routine. It was only the true purpose of the entire operation that was
Radiography of nail-patella syndrome. The skeletal manifestations of nail-patella syndrome are characteristic and consist of absent patella and absent and dystrophic nails. These photographs illustrate absent patella (A) and the characteristic nail changes (B) that occur in patients with the disorder. (From Gregory and Atkin 2 with permission.)
Scans are of relevance, be sure the printed copy is stapled and placed into the progress notes of the patient's chart. A surgeon who has provided the patient with a sketch to help explain an operative procedure should place the sketch in the patient's chart and write the date on it. In one case involving an informed consent issue, the defense was able to produce a sketch of the operation that the surgeon had made on the reverse side of a lab report in the patient's chart, refuting the patient's contention that no explanation of the procedure had ever been given. If equipment malfunction is involved in an adverse outcome, such as a death in which a postmortem examination was conducted, insist that the risk management office provide a secure place to store the specimen or equipment in question for later testing or use as a trial exhibit. If an anomalous condition has contributed to an adverse outcome in a death case, make sure the pathologist at autopsy at least photographs the...
The simplest involves comparing two spatial images, such as two greyscale photographs. Each photograph can be described as a series of pixels, each of different intensities, and so represented by a matrix. For example, one photograph may have been taken under different filters or with different apparatus to the other.
Everyone understands the effects of ageing, and we have a rough idea how old people are from their appearance. It may therefore come as a surprise that scientists have some difficulty in actually determining the age of single individuals. There is no individual adult feature that can be examined which is an accurate indicator of age. There are many features which taken together give an overall estimate, perhaps within a few years. This is again what might be expected if multiple events occur, and at least some of them are subject to chance. Nevertheless the effects of ageing are extremely obvious. Figure 2 shows photographs the poet W.H. Auden as a young man, and two years before died. They show that time has enormous effects on our facial features.
Events involved in semen collection using a jump mare (a) introduction or teasing of the stallion and mare (b) AV ready for use (c) guiding the stallion's penis into the AV and the correct positioning of the handlers all on the same side of the mare and stallion (d) slightly inclined positioning of the AV to mimic the natural position of the mare's vagina (e) dismount of the stallion and slow removal of the AV, ensuring all semen is collected (f) after dismount the stallion should be turned away from the mare to reduce the chance of injury (g) the collected sample. (Photographs by Julie Baumber and Victor Medina.) Fig. 5.23. Events involved in semen collection using a jump mare (a) introduction or teasing of the stallion and mare (b) AV ready for use (c) guiding the stallion's penis into the AV and the correct positioning of the handlers all on the same side of the mare and stallion (d) slightly inclined positioning of the AV to mimic the natural position of the mare's...
As it happens, the most notorious of extermination camps, Oswiecim and Brzezinka (Auschwitz and Birkenau), are in the Krakow area, about the same distance from the city as Brzesko, but in the opposite (westerly) direction. The camps have been preserved, a commemorative museum has been built, etc. They have become part of the normal tourist itinerary, with parking for tour buses, a cafeteria and souvenir shop. The horror is muted thereby, but the barracks and furnaces are still there they and the photographs in the exhibits serve to preserve our feelings of revulsion - the naked women, for example, old and young, some clutching babies, being herded by SS men to the gas chambers.
Documentation of the progression of neuromuscular disease (especially chronic diseases) should not be limited to changes measured by the ancillary tests described later in this section. Depending upon the disease, measurement of muscle strength, sensory measurements (e.g., vibration threshold, Semmes-Weinstein filaments, etc.), and sketches of the patterns of atrophy and weakness may be helpful. Digital imaging, video clips, and photographs of patients provide a precise documentation of the patient's movement capabilities, but may not be possible due to legal, ethical, and other concerns for the patient.
The five leukocyte types are compared in table 18.8. From the photographs and data, take note of their sizes relative to each other and to the size of erythrocytes (which are about 7.5 m in diameter). Also note how the leukocytes differ from each other in relative abundance from neu-trophils, which constitute about two-thirds of the WBC count, to basophils, which usually account for less than 1 . Nuclear shape is an important key to identifying leukocytes. The granulocytes are further distinguished from each other by the coarseness, abundance, and staining properties of their cytoplasmic granules.
The mucosa has a transitional epithelium, and in the relaxed bladder it has conspicuous wrinkles called rugae28 (ROO-gee). The openings of the two ureters and the urethra mark a smooth-surfaced triangular area called the trigone29 on the bladder floor. This is a common site of bladder infection (see insight 23.3). For photographs of the relationship of the bladder and urethra to other pelvic organs in both sexes, see figure A.22 (p. 51).
A traditional neuroanatomical textbook with many references to clinical disease entities (set in blue boxes). The text is nicely formatted, and there are many illustrations, photographs, histological sections, and diagrams (in two colors). The authors have attempted to create an integrated text for medical and allied health professionals, combining the basic neuroscience with clinical entities. The book is richly illustrated, in full color, with large appealing explanatory diagrams and some MRIs, but there are few actual photographs. The clinical syndromes are in boxes accompanied by illustrations. A glossary has been added. A very well illustrated atlas, with most of the photographs and sections in color. Little in the way of explanatory text. A popular atlas that has some excellent photographs of the brain, some color illustrations of the vascular supply, with additional radiologic material, all without explanatory text. The histological section of the brainstem is very detailed....
No one seems to know exactly how tall, but by all accounts Abraham Lincoln was an uncommonly tall man. During the Civil War a reporter described him as a tall, lank, lean man considerably over 6 feet in height with stooping shoulders, long pendulous arms terminating in hands of extraordinary dimensions which, however, were far exceeded in proportion by his feet. Contemporary photographs confirm that he towered over most men. One famous photo shows him standing head and shoulders above the diminutive General McClellan, the caps of the other, taller officers just even with the beard on the President's chin. We know relatively little about Lincoln's health, but he was said to be a man of impressive strength and, except when he was chained by bouts of depression, of great energy.
Sumer flourished some four thousand to five thousand years ago, but by the first century, its language had vanished and its writings, in the form of cuneiform characters inscribed on clay tablets, were indecipherable. Scholars believe that the wedge-shaped symbols evolved from pictures used in an early accounting system into abstract signs that represented sounds of speech. Most Sumerian tablets dealt with mundane economic and administrative transactions, but thousands of others record myths, fables, and ideas about science, mathematics, and medicine. Scholars have even discovered cuneiform tablets containing recipes, which provide intriguing clues to eating, drinking, and the role of cults and feasting in the ancient world. Other traces of the extent and complexity of ancient Mesopotamian civilization have recently been revealed by surveillance satellites. These photographs reveal traces of previously unknown settlements and networks of roads long buried under the sands of the Middle...
100 Photography Tips
To begin with your career in photography at the right path, you need to gather more information about it first. Gathering information would provide you guidance on the right steps that you need to take. Researching can be done through the internet, talking to professional photographers, as well as reading some books about the subject. Get all the tips from the pros within this photography ebook.