Premature Ejaculation No More

Ejaculation By Command

Everything is explained here in clear, concise and easy-to-understand instructions. The insights, tools and techniques in this program have been rigorously tried, tested and proven effective not only by me, but by thousands of other men who are now enjoying lovemaking that lasts so much longer than before. Here's a Very partial list of what you're going to learn inside this exciting new program: How to overcome mental barriers to sexual endurance develop iron-clad stamina and confidence by using these 9 specific techniques I am going to give you. A primal sexual technique that adds massive control to your arousal. and puts a woman over the edge with sexual excitement. she'll have to have you Right Then And There. and nothing will be able to stop her. 4 powerful breathing strategies that will amplify your staying power and prolong your orgasm for as long as you desire (97% of men screw up their breathing and end up ejaculating too soon) Specific guided love muscle exercises to skyrocket your ejaculatory control and your ability to withstand intense sexual stimulation (The secret is in the step-by-step process, which you'll learn in detail) The Pleasure Acclimatizing technique to train and condition your ejaculation reflexes so that you will Automatically last longer without tipping over in a hurry (this is one of the stamina secrets that Top porn actors use All The Time ) Have you ever blown your load even Before penetration starts. and wondered how the hell that happened? Here's the little-known and closely-guarded Total Immersion technique you can use to Outlast her during sex (it's much easier than you think. when you know the secret) Continue reading...

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Ejaculation Guru

In This Video You'll Discover: How I personally went from lasting less than 10 seconds in bed to over 30 minutes in bed. The real reason so many men suffer from premature ejaculation. And exactly what to do about it. How long you should be lasting if you want to truly satisfy a woman This, by the way, comes from a study carried out by a major University. The number #1 thing holding most men back from getting control over their orgasms and how you can change it. (By the way, most guys don't even realize this is holding them back, but it's critical to understand if you want to learn to last long in bed) What most porn stars will Never tell you about porn and its influence on your sexual stamina. The truth about penis size and its links with how long you last. What the number #1 reason is for relationships ending. and how premature ejaculation is critically linked to it. Why you should Avoid 99% of people trying to sell you long lasting condoms, creams or pills. Continue reading...

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Epididymis Vas and Ejaculatory Ducts

There is an increased incidence of epididymitis in ARM boys and this is seen prior to and after surgical closure of rectourinary fistula 8,35 . The exact mechanism for this is unknown, but abnormalities such as urethral strictures, ectopic ureters, diverticulum at the previous fistula site, and a neurogenic bladder may all be contributory factors. Ectopia of the vas has been reported 28 , and Wolffian duct abnormalities are more common on the same side as renal anomalies 23 . The vas and seminal vesicles are prone to iatrogenic injury in patients with prostatic and bladder neck fistulas 11 . Holt et al. reported a high incidence of male infertility in adult males treated for ARM. Half of the groups studied were azospermic and there was a high incidence of ejaculatory problems 23 . This highlights the importance of treating recurrent epididymitis, performing early orchidopexy, and referring these patients to adolescent urology for assessment in early adult life.

Descriptive Epidemiology of ARM

In a large Japanese cohort, males with fistulas were divided into rectourethral (adjacent to the ejaculatory duct 40 ) and rectobulbar entering the bulb of the urethra below the urogenital diaphragm 27 . Rectourethral fistula was identified in 81.4 of patients with high lesions these authors suggested that recto-urethral fistulas should be classified into subgroups depending on the level of the blind-ending rectum.

Preoperative abnormalities

The clinical manifestations of primary, chronic autonomic failure include the following features orthostatic hypotension, anhydrosis, heat intolerance, constipation, dysphagia, nocturia, frequency, urgency, incontinence, retention of urine, erectile or ejaculatory failure, Horner's syndrome, stridor, apnoea, Parkinson's disease, cerebellar and pyramidal features (Mathias 1997). Erythropoietin depletion may cause anaemia, particularly in diabetic neuropathy (Watkins 1998).

Classification Of Sexual Dysfunction

Premature ejaculation Retarded ejaculation In males, while orgasm and emission are normally linked, they can be separated, because in the latter phase organic muscle contraction and emission are responsible for ejaculation. Male sexual dysfunction includes premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and erectile difficulties. The latter could be linked with Peyronie's disease.

Genital Anomalies Fertility and Sexual Problems

There is little information about fertility in patients with ARM. In the series of Rintala et al. of 83 adult patients 62 with low malformations, 47 (57 ) had offspring of their own. In the same study, 54 of the healthy controls of similar age and sex distribution had children of their own. On the other hand, in another study from the same institution concerning high malformations, only 39 of the patients had children, which was significantly less than the healthy controls (60 ) 83 . In Hendren's 92 large series of cloaca patients, 7 out of 24 adults have had children of their own. Obviously, the low frequency of offspring in patients with high anomalies reflects true infertility in a significant percentage of patients. Ejaculatory duct obstruction has been reported in males 95 , some have weak or missing erections, or retrograde ejaculations 83 , and some females have Mullerian structure agenesis 90 . On the other hand, some patients may avoid sexual contacts because of defective...

Complications and Management

Aside from the complications inherent to abdominal procedures in general, several complications are relatively specific to this operation including sexual dysfunction, nonhealing of the perineal wound, and complications related to the ileostomy stoma itself. Sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction or retrograde ejaculation in men and dyspareunia in women) has been reported in up to 11 of men undergoing proctectomy for inflammatory bowel disease (9) and up to 50 of women (10). Even with the use of intersphincteric proctectomy, nonhealing of the perineal wound remains a significant problem, occurring in 11 of patients operated on for ulcerative colitis and 33 of those operated on for Crohn's disease (11). Complications related to the ileostomy are reviewed earlier.

Prostate Specific Antigen

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in men over 50 years of age and has been demonstrated in several studies to produce elevations in total serum PSA that overlap with levels associated with malignancy.27,28 In fact, Nadler et al. reported that prostate volume was the most important benign contributor to PSA elevation.28 The authors also reported that both acute and chronic prostatic inflammation accounted for some elevation in total PSA.28 Reports on the effects of ejaculation on PSA levels have been conflicting to date. Herschman et al. reported a statistically significant elevation in total PSA for up to 24 hours following ejaculation and concluded that PSA measurements within this interval may lead to inaccurate interpretation of both total and free PSA levels.29 In contrast, Stenner and associates found an initial postejaculation fall in PSA levels followed by a return to baseline over 12 hours. These authors concluded that ejaculation has no clinically...

Risk Factors for Transmission Among Homosexual

Winkelstein, Padian, Rutherford, and Jaffe (1989) review studies of factors affecting the chance of transmission among homosexual men. The earliest studies compared patients with AIDS to controls without AIDS. Marmor, Friedman-Kien, Laubenstein, et al. (1982) conducted a case-control study based on 20 histologically confirmed cases of Kaposi's sarcoma among homosexual men seen at the New York University Medical Center between March 1979 and August 1981 and on 40 controls matched to cases on age and race and selected from the Manhattan practice of a physician treating homosexual men. Risk was associated with level of sexual activity in the previous year, with a history of mononucleosis and of sexually transmitted diseases, and with the use of recreational drugs. A multivariate logistic model included numbers of previous sex partners and lifetime exposures to amyl nitrite. Despite the suggestion from the multivariate regression that exposure to nitrites might have an etiologic role for...

Factors affecting success rates of frozen semen

One of the major sources of variation which is reputed to have a considerable effect upon post-thaw spermatozoan viability, regardless of all other factors, is season. For reasons of management, it is much more convenient to collect semen destined for freezing outside the normal covering season. In the northern hemisphere this means collection from August to November, and for the southern hemisphere collection from February to May. This is practised because the increase in ejaculation frequency required if collection for insemination is to be carried out during the normal covering season may compromise both pregnancy rates for natural service and the quality of spermatozoa collected. Collection of semen for freezing, especially if it is intended for export, will require veterinary regulations to be met these normally involve a series of blood tests, swabs and possibly semen culture. There may also be a period of quarantine for the stallion prior to collection. Satisfying these...

Prostatic Function and Secretions

Under natural mating conditions, the secretions of the accessory sex glands function to (1) dilute the caudal epi-didymal sperm to the appropriate concentration and volume (2) remove urine and bacteria from the urethra (3) provide appropriate buffering and energy sources for the sperm until they leave the site of deposition and begin their ascent up the female reproductive tract (4) remove the motility and capacitation inhibitors necessary in the epididymis to ensure a fresh product and (5) in species exhibiting postejaculatory solidification of the semen, such as rats mice and humans, provide the chemical components for solidification and, if appropriate, dissolution of the seminal clot. Sperm removed from the epi-didymis in humans and other species53,54 can fertilize ova, indicating that the secretions of the accessory sex glands are not essential for fertility, at least under laboratory conditions. However, under natural conditions fertility has not been optimized through genetics,...

Chapter Thirteen Male Reproductive System 295

Label The Reproductive System

From here the ductus deferens turns into the ejaculatory duct, which receives fluid from the semimal vesicles. The ejaculatory duct leads to the urethra where secretions from the prostate and bulbourethral glands are added. Finally the sperm cells and seminal fluid (together these make semen) are ejaculated from the penis.

Collection without mounting

Pharmacological ejaculation Pharmacologically induced ejaculation has been reported to be successful in the stallion, using xylazine infusion while standing the stallion in a quiet environment (McDonnell and Love, 1991). Xylazine acts as an a-adrenergic stimulator. Other a-adrenergic drugs used with some success in inducing erection followed by ejaculation include imipramine and chlomipramine (McDonnell and Turner, 1994). Additional stimulation using xylazine has been reported to be required for consistent ejaculation following erection (McDonnell and Odian, 1994 Turner et al., 1995). Using such treatment, Card et al. (1997) reported conception in four out of five mares inseminated. These a-adrenergic drugs are also known to have an effect on the central nervous system, involving the norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin systems, each of which plays a role in male sexual arousal, erection and ejaculation (Turner et al., 1995). Pharmacologically induced ejaculation has been used in...

Organs Of The Male Reproductive System

Male Pelvis Midsagittal

The sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. This occurs in lobules of the testis before they move to the epididymis. The epididymis has a series of long coiled tubules called the ductus epididymis and the sperm cells slowly pass through this ductwork. After the sperm cells mature in the epididymis they then travel to the ductus deferens which loops around the ureters before reaching the seminal vesicles located on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder. The seminal vesicles add a fluid that has buffers and that provides fructose to the sperm cells. From the seminal vesicles the fluid passes through the ejaculatory duct to the prostate. The prostate adds further fluid that is rich in buffers. This fluid passes into the urethra. The bulbourethral glands add a protein lubricant to the fluid. Label the organs and their features in the illustration and color them in different colors. h. Ureter, i. Urinary bladder, j. Seminal vesicle, k. Ejaculatory duct, I....

Deposition of spermatozoa

Stallions Penis

There are three stages involved in the deposition of spermatozoa into the genital tract of the mare erection, emission and ejaculation. Each will be considered in turn. Ejaculation Ejaculation occurs in association with and as a result of emission. Both emission and ejaculation result from muscle contraction, primarily of the walls of the vas deferens and the urethra. During ejaculation there is additional help from contraction of the penile muscle fibres. As already noted, ejaculation occurs in a series of jets and is accompanied by a series of pelvic thrusts. There are normally six to nine jets in total per ejaculate, lasting on average

The Cambridge and Colorado models

Vagina Artificial Nishikawa

The Cambridge model is constructed of a stiff outer casing (of varying lengths and normally made of plastic, though metal may be used) which is enclosed firstly in an outer rubber lining (Fig. 5.3) to provide protection. This outer lining is tightly clamped to the plastic tube by means of two large jubilee clips attached at either end. Secondly, there is an inner rubber lining (Fig. 5.3), which is slightly longer than the outer lining but smaller in diameter. The inner liner is placed inside the lumen of the AV and stretched over both ends of the casing and outer liner, and also secured by, the two jubilee clips. The inner liner is a tight fit and stretching it is an art. It is advisable to secure one end and then stretch the other end over the casing, trying to ensure that the inner liner is smooth throughout the length of the AV. Any wrinkles in the liner may cause irritation and the AV may therefore be rejected by a fussy stallion, with low libido, especially during the transition...

Spermiogenesis Process Image

The fluid expelled during orgasm is called semen,32 or seminal fluid. A typical ejaculation discharges 2 to 5 mL Convert fibrinogen to fibrin after ejaculation, causing semen to clot and adhere to vagina and cervix. Dissolves fibrin and liquefies semen about 15 to 30 minutes after ejaculation, thus liberating sperm from the clot.

Removal of seminal plasma

The components and function of seminal plasma have been discussed at some length in Chapter 4. In summary, seminal plasma has several functions it modifies spermatozoa to allow progressive motility during ejaculation and within the female tract it acts as a transport medium providing metabolic substrates to maintain the viability of spermatozoa up to the time of fertilization and finally, due to its volume, it increases the chance of even distribution of spermatozoa within the uterine body and horns (Metz et al., 1990).

Psychosexual Problems

Apart from the psychological burden of repeated surgery, growth retardation, incontinence, stomas, catheters, and neuromotor disabilities, gender identity can be a major problem in later years, especially in genetic males. If reared as boys, the phallus is inadequate and lacks erectile and ejaculatory function 27,38 . The testes are often undescended 44 . When reared as girls, some children have revolted against the assigned female role and declared themselves as boys, even without prior knowledge of their genetic sex 32 .

Sexual Stimulation of the Stallion and Encouragement to Ejaculate

Stallion Sexual Behavior

May be affected by the method and length of sexual stimulation. Ionata et al. (1991b) demonstrated that teasing a stallion for 20 min prior to a second ejaculation resulted in a significant increase in the total volume of semen collected, mostly due to a greater volume of the gel-free fraction, and a reduction in the number of mounts required per ejaculation, though the concentration of spermatozoa remained lower than from the first ejaculate. The normal method of sexual stimulation is to present the stallion with a mare in oestrus, termed a teaser or jump mare. He will then be encouraged to mount this mare and the resultant semen sample is collected into an AV rather than ejaculated into the mare (Fig. 5.17). Fig. 5.17. The use of a jump mare provides sexual stimulation and encourages ejaculation (photograph by Angela Stanfield). Fig. 5.17. The use of a jump mare provides sexual stimulation and encourages ejaculation (photograph by Angela Stanfield).

Preoperative Treatment Of Patients With Pheochromocytomas

Sive are also usually treated (carefully) preopera-tively. Phenoxybenzamine (Dibenzyline, 10 mg capsules), an oral nonselective a-blocker, is the most commonly used a-blocker it is given orally in a starting dose of 10 mg daily and increased by 10 mg every 3 to 5 days until the blood pressure is 140 90 mm Hg. Hydration should be encouraged. Patients must be monitored for worsening orthostatic hypotension. Other adverse effects are common, including dry mouth, headache, diplopia, inhibition of ejaculation, and nasal congestion. (Patients are cautioned not to use nasal decongestants if urinary catecholamines or 123I-MIBG scanning is planned, but antihistamines are acceptable.) Phenoxybenza-mine crosses the placenta and can cause hypotension and respiratory depression in the newborn for several days following birth.60 Most patients require 30 to 60 mg day, but the dosage is sometimes escalated to as high as 120 mg day. Excessive alpha-blockade with phenoxybenzamine is undesirable because...

The Artificial Vagina

Semen needs to be collected in an environment which closely mimics that of the mare's vagina, but which eliminates the potentially detrimental effect of natural secretions. The aim is to encourage ejaculation and ensure that the sample is collected under conditions as near as possible to those found with natural service, hence minimizing any collection effect on the sample and on subsequent fertilization rates. These aims may be achieved by using a sterile tube, surrounded by a water jacket that provides a means of temperature control. Ejaculation occurs into the lumen of the tube (which is normally lined with a disposable liner) and is collected into a warmed collecting vessel attached to the distal end of the tube. Figure 5.1 illustrates the major features required of an artificial vagina (AV).

Quantification of DNA

The quantity of DNA that can be extracted from a sample depends very much on the type of material. Each nucleated cell contains approximately 6 pg of DNA liquid blood contains 5000-10 000 nucleated blood cells per millilitre semen contains on average 66 million spermatozoa per millilitre (the average ejaculation produces 2.75 ml of semen) 36 . Biological samples recovered from the scene of crime are not usually in

The penis

Penile Blood Pressure Measurement

In cross-section, as illustrated in Figs 3.5 and 3.6, the glans penis can be seen to consist primarily of two areas of erectile tissue the corona glandis, found dorsal to the urethra and outside the fibrous tunica albuginea and the corpus carvenosus penis, also found dorsal to the urethra but within the tunica albuginea. The major area of erectile tissue is the corona glandis, which, as it is outside the tunica albuginea, has no fibrous capsule restricting the extent to which it can expand. Closer towards the end of the penis this area becomes increasingly more significant, at the expense of the corpus carvenosus penis. The significant expansion of the glans penis apparent at ejaculation is achieved

Development

It has been postulated that the central zone arises from the wolffian ducts rather than from the urogenital sinus, which would make its origin mesodermal rather then endodermal.4 Anatomically, the central zone lies in close opposition to the ejaculatory ducts, and its epithelium more closely resembles that of the seminal vesicles than that of the peripheral and transition zones.4 Biochemically, the expression of lectins and pepsinogen ii (which has an extremely limited distribution) in the central zone resembles that of the seminal vesicles rather than that of the peripheral zone.5,6

Volume

The effect of workload (that is, ejaculation frequency) has been investigated by several authors (Pickett and Voss, 1972 Kenney, 1975 Pickett et al., 1975c Sullivan and Pickett, 1975 Swierstra et al., 1975). In summary, it is apparent that the major effect of increasing the ejaculation frequency of a stallion is on the volume of gel fraction produced, with the first ejaculation invariably having a higher gel fraction than subsequent ejaculations (Pickett et al., 1976). When frequency of collection throughout a week was investigated, it was concluded that for the majority of stallions a frequency of collection ranging from one per week to six per week had no significant effect on seminal volume, either total or gel-free (Pickett et al., 1975c). However, a second ejaculation within 24 h did show a significant drop in total volume (Dowsett and Pattie, 1987 Pickett and Shiner, 1994). No significant effect should be seen in the great majority of stallions with a collection frequency of...

Seminal fluid pH

Values should be in the range of 6.9-7.7 (Davies Morel, 1993 Oba et al., 1993), though some authors suggest that a tighter range of 7.35-7.7 is more appropriate (Pickett and Back, 1973 Rossdale and Rickett, 1980 Hurtgen, 1987 Fayrer-Hosken and Caudle, 1989). In general, pH levels tend to be higher in the second ejaculate when two ejaculates are collected in succession. This change in pH is probably due to a reduction in epididymal secretions, after depletion of reserves during the first ejaculate, and a lower concentration of spermatozoa (Pickett et al., 1976, 1988a,b). The reported negative correlation between seminal volume and pH and between the number of spermatozoa and pH (Pickett et al., 1988a) suggests that samples with a high pH may have low spermatozoan concentrations. This relationship may be used to indicate whether ejaculation has been complete. Samples from stallions who appear to have ejaculated fully, due to the large amount of fluid deposited, but which in fact have a...

Virology

It is not normal practice to attempt to isolate viruses from a semen sample. Routine good breeding management and veterinary examination for all stallions prior to collection for AI, following the Codes of Practice (Horse Race Betting Levy Board, 1997) and EVA Order, 1995 (EC Decision 95 307 EC EC Decision 96 539 EC), should ensure that any stallions that may be shedding virus in their semen are picked up. Equine herpes virus (EHV) and equine viral arteritis (EVA) may be shed in the semen of infected or previously infected stallions (Timoney et al., 1988a Tearle et al., 1996). Of these two, EVA is of particular importance and is a worldwide problem. It has recently become of importance in the UK, where it is now classified as a notifiable disease under certain circumstances, under the EVA Order, 1995 (Horse Race Betting Levy Board, 1997). The virus may be passed in the semen from either symptomatic or long-term asymptomatic carriers (Timoney et al., 1988). Virus isolation from the...

Collection Procedure

Stallion Penis

Acceptable, provided the handlers are appropriately placed. Indeed, collection from the offside is preferred by some stallions and by many right-handed collectors, especially with the heavier Cambridge type AVs, as it allows the right arm to take the weight of the AV. In Germany, specially designed bridles are used that allow the handler to stand on the nearside and the collector on the offside. The reins of the bridle are so arranged as to allow the handler to pull the horse's head to the right in the event of problems (J.M. Parlevliet, The Netherlands, 1998, personal communication S. Revell, Wales, 1998, personal communication). Many dummies are fitted with a lumen into which the AV may be placed (Fig. 5.19), so circumventing the problem as to on which side to stand. Once the stallion is drawn and ready to mount the mare, he should be allowed to do so with minimal interference. Excessive interference at any stage, but especially during the period prior to intromission and...

The accessory glands

Ultrasound Bulbourethral Glands

Access to (and, therefore, evaluation of the function and products of) the accessory glands is particularly difficult, due to their position within the pelvic cavity of the stallion. Hence little information is available on these glands, their relative importance and the characteristics of their secretions. Some information can be gleaned from ultrasonic examination - for example, the order of gland secretions and gland activity during ejaculation (Weber and Woods, 1993) - and from 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (Magistrini et al., 1995). Such examination confirms the involvement of the accessory glands in seminal plasma production and indicates that sexual preparation and ejaculation are associated with an increase, and subsequent decrease, in the size of the bulbourethral glands, prostate gland and vesicular glands (Weber et al., 1990). Table 3.1 illustrates the major secretions of the various accessory glands in some farm livestock however, it is evident that considerable variation...

Inguinal Canal

Pampiniform Plexus Thrombosis

The vas deferens (Figs. 1.18,1.19), a cord-like structure rich in smooth muscle fibers, begins as a direct continuation of the tail of the epididymis and ascends in the center of the spermatic cord, entering the abdominal wall via the superficial inguinal ring. Subsequent to its course through the deep inguinal ring into the pelvis, it joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct. Bilateral congenital absence of the vas deferens is associated with azoospermia and may determine the likelihood of cystic fibrosis 47 .

The dummy mare

Semen Collection Training Stallion

It is essential that the dummy is sturdy and able to hold the weight of the thrusting stallion. Instability will result in potential danger to the stallion and the handlers and may result in the stallion feeling insecure and so objecting to ejaculating while mounted on the dummy. The dummy mares that are available with four legs (one at each corner) tend to be more stable. Those with a single or two central legs allow less scope for the stallion to get entangled in the supports, and are increasingly the more popular design (Fig. 5.19).

Testicular Size

Relationship Testicular Volume

Such a relationship would be expected, as the amount of a product depends upon the amount of tissue producing it. Experiments conducted by Thompson et al. (1979a) produced various correlation coefficients between various size parameters of the testes and DSP and DSO. The best correlation (0.75) existed between total scrotal width (measured across the two testes from the point of greatest curvature of one testis to the point of greatest curvature of the other) and DSP. Testicular size is, therefore, a very good indicator of the spermatozoa-producing capacity of that stallion and may be advocated as a parameter when selecting for reproductive potential (Pickett and Shiner, 1994). Testicular size in bulls is highly heritable (65 or more) and is very likely also to be heritable in stallions. The correlation between testicular width and DSO at 0.55 is not as good, as factors additional to testicular size affect output of spermatozoa at ejaculation (for...

Accessory Glands

The seminal vesicles are a pair of glands posterior to the urinary bladder one is associated with each ductus deferens. A seminal vesicle is about 5 cm long, or approximately the dimensions of your little finger. It has a connective tissue capsule and underlying layer of smooth muscle. The secretory portion is a very convoluted duct with numerous branches that form a complex labyrinth. The duct empties into the ejaculatory duct. The yellowish secretion of the seminal vesicles constitutes about 60 of the semen its composition and functions are discussed later. 2. The prostate23 (PROSS-tate) gland surrounds the urethra and ejaculatory duct immediately inferior to

The Missouri model

Missouri Model Filling System

Stallion, environmental temperature, etc. In addition, the double liner does not reach to the end of the AV and so ejaculation normally occurs beyond the end of the heated portion of the liner. Inadvertent elevation of the temperature within the water jacket will not, therefore, result in heat-related injury to the spermatozoa collected, though obviously heated-related injury to the stallion may still occur under such conditions.

Appearance

One of the reasons for the condition of urospermia is a disruption of the neural mechanisms involved in ejaculation, which can lead to accidental bladder contraction and hence urine leakage during ejaculation (Rasbech, 1975 Leendertse et al., 1990 Mayhew, 1990). Control of the bladder sphincter and seminal emission is via the a-adrenergic sympathetic nervous system. Hence any interference with, or disruption of, this pathway might be involved in the condition (Voss and McKinnon, 1993). It has also been reported that the condition may be associated with self-mutilation in stallions (Samper, 1995a). In addition, neuropathies which cause bladder paralysis may also result in urospermia. This may be associated with equine herpes virus type I, as a secondary effect, or a result from poisoning with sorghum grass or due to cauda equina neuritis (Varner and Schumacher, 1991 Voss and McKinnon, 1993). Stallions suffering from urospermia may appear normal, with no neurological defects and...

Capacitation

Spermatozoa can reach the distal uterine tube within 5 to 10 minutes of ejaculation, but they cannot fertilize an egg for about 10 hours. While migrating, they undergo a process of capacitation that makes it possible to penetrate an egg. Prior to ejaculation, the membrane of the sperm head contains a substantial amount of cholesterol, which toughens it and prevents premature release of the acroso-mal enzymes. This avoids wastage of sperm and enzymatic damage to the spermatic ducts. After ejaculation, however, fluids of the female reproductive tract wash away cholesterol and other inhibitory factors in the semen. The membrane of the sperm head becomes more fragile and more permeable to calcium ions, which diffuse into the sperm and cause more powerful lashing of the tail. Most sperm are fertile for a maximum of 48 hours after ejaculation, so there is little chance of fertilizing an egg if intercourse occurs more than 48 hours before ovulation. Fertilization also is unlikely if...

Minimal restraint

Restraint and are hard to collect from by conventional means. It is possible to collect semen from an unrestrained stallion, using an AV, though it is potentially very dangerous. This method is used by the University of Wales, Institute of Rural Studies for the collection of semen from semi-wild Welsh Mountain Section A stallions (under 13.2 hands high, or 135 cm). A specially designed collecting and penning area is used for collection (Fig. 5.22). This system works well with stallions that are young, small in size and lack confidence. However, it requires handlers who are alert and quick to ensure that ejaculation occurs into the AV. In the Institute of Rural Studies a relatively large and reliable teaser mare is used, making accidental covering less likely.

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