Adp

Oligomycin

Ochratoxin A

Inner membrane Outer membrane

Some of the mitochondrial targets of nephro-toxicants: 1) nicotinamide adenine dinu-cleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase; 2) succinate dehydrogenase; 3) coenzyme Q-cytochrome C reductase; 4) cytochrome C; 5) cytochrome C oxidase; 6) cytochrome Aa3; 7) H+-Pi contransporter; 8) F0Fr ATPase; 9) adenine triphosphate/diphosphate (ATP/ADP) translocase; 10) protonophore (uncoupler); 11) substrate transporters.

Disruption of ion homeostasis

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