Pathophysiologic sequelae of the elevated cytosolic calcium (C2+). A, The increase in cytosolic calcium concentration in hypoxic rat proximal tubules precedes the tubular damage as assessed by propidi-um iodide (PI) staining. B, Administration of calcium channel inhibitor verapamil before injection of norepinephrine (cross-hatched bars) significantly attenuated the drop in inulin clearance induced by norepinephrine alone (open bars). (A, Adapted from Kribben et al. [19], with permission; B, adapted from Burke et al. [20], with permission.)

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