expression Did not worsen outcomes IGF-I—insulin-like growth factor.

Lack of basic knowledge of the pathophysiology of ARF No screening system for compounds to treat ARF

Animal models may not be relevant Animal studies have not predicted results in human trials Difficulty of identifying appropriate target populations

FIGURE 17-24 (Continued)

Several genes have already been identified to be induced or down-regulated after ischemia and reperfusion. This table lists genes whose expression is altered as a result of ischemic injury. It is not clear at present if the varied expression of these genes plays a role in cell injury, survival, or proliferation.

ARF—acute renal failure.

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