Figure 101

Chronic exposure to drugs, occupational hazards, or environmental toxins can lead to chronic interstitial renal diseases. The following are the major causes of chronic interstitial renal diseases: occupational exposure to heavy metals; abuse of over-the-counter analgesics; misuse of germanium; chronic intake of mesalazine for intestinal disorders, lithium for depression, and cyclosporine in renal and nonre-nal diseases; and environmental or iatrogenic exposure to fungus or plant nephrotoxins (ochratoxins, aristolochic acids).

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