Figure 1014

Investigation of the cause of renal disease during pregnancy can be conducted with serolog-ic, functional, and ultrasonographic testing. Renal biopsy is rarely performed during gestation. Renal biopsy usually is reserved for situations in which renal function suddenly deteriorates without apparent cause or when symptomatic nephrotic syndrome occurs, particularly when azotemia is present. Almost no role exists for renal biopsy after gestational week 32 because at this stage the fetus will likely be delivered, independent of biopsy results [17].

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