Classic analgesic nephropathy is a slowly progressive disease resulting from the daily consumption over several years of mixtures containing analgesics usually combined with caffeine, codeine, or both. Caffeine and codeine create psychological dependence. Most cases of analgesic nephropathy occur in women. In 80% of the cases, analgesics were taken for persistent headache. Gastrointestinal complaints are also frequent, as are urinary tract infections. Evidence of clinical papillary necrosis (fever and pain) is present in 20% of cases. Calcifications of papillae (detected by computed tomography scan) are present in 65% of persons who abuse analgesics .
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