Figure 1024

Cyclosporine and hypertension. Hypertension can develop in 10% to 80% of patients treated with cyclosporine, depending on dosage and length of the exposure. Cyclosporine increases cytosol calcium and, thus, enhances arteriolar smooth muscle responsiveness to vasoconstrictive stimuli. Vasoconstrictive effects of cyclosporine also are mediated by enhanced thromboxane action, sympathetic nerve stimulation, and release of endothelin. Renal vasoconstriction results in salt retention and hypertension. In chronic exposure to cyclosporine, hypertension also is a part of cyclosporine-induced chronic renal failure [22].

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