Figure 103

Lead nephropathy associated with environmental and occupational exposure. Epidemiologic observations have established the relationship between lead exposure and renal failure in association with children eating lead paint in their homes, chronic ingestion of lead-contaminated flour, lead-loaded drinking water in homes, and drinking of illegal moonshine whiskey [2,3]. Occupational exposure in lead-producing industries also has been associated with a higher incidence of renal dysfunction.

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